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Atomic force microscopy probe-induced large-area ultrathin SiOx (x ≡ O/Si content ratio and x > 2) protrusions only a few nanometers high on a SiO2 layer were characterized by scanning photoemission microscopy (SPEM) and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). SPEM images of the large-area ultrathin SiOx protrusions directly showed the surface chemical distribution and chemical state specifications. The peak intensity ratios of the XPS spectra of the large-area ultrathin SiOx protrusions provided the elemental quantification of the Si 2p core levels and Si oxidation states (such as the Si4+, Si3+, Si2+, and Si1+ species). The O/Si content ratio (x) was evidently determined by the height of the large-area ultrathin SiOx protrusions.
Synthesis of (Pb0.45Ca0.55)(Fe0.5Nb0.5)1-yTiyO3 (y=0 and 0.1; PCFN and PCFNT) ceramics by a reaction-sintering process was investigated. The mixture of raw materials was pressed and sintered into ceramics without any calcination stage involved. The density 5.88g/cm3 (91.6% of the theoretical value) is reached at 1270°C for 2 h soak time in PCFN. Densification increased as B-site was substituted by 10% Ti and a density value 6.21g/cm3 (98.1% of theoretical value) was obtained after 2 h sintering at 1270°C. Grains are of 4.6–19.3μm in PCFN and 2.5–16.5μm in PCFNT at 1150–1270°C. Grain growth was retarded as the B-site was substituted by 10% Ti in PCFN ceramics.
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