An earthquake is a very common natural disaster. Numerous studies have focused on the acute phase, but studies concerning the subacute phase after an earthquake were very limited. This aroused more attention being paid to medical relief in the subacute phase, and this study elaborated on the division of the medical relief period and the definition of medical relief targets. More importantly, major types of disease were analyzed by reviewing the relevant published studies, which were identified by searching electronic databases. Findings suggested that the clear division of medical relief stage is vital for determining the priority of medical aid and allocating medical resources scientifically, and all concerned populations should be targeted for medical assistance. The focus of acute phase is injury (64.2%), and the subacute phase is disease (27.8% respiratory disease, 22.9% common disease, 12.5% wound/injury, 10.5% skin disease, 8.7% gynecological and pediatric disease, 8.5% digestive disease). However, due to the limited available studies, the included articles perhaps did not reflect the actual proportion of each type of disease. More studies are needed to better understand the proportion of different diseases in each phase of an earthquake.