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Liquid films can be entrained when the dewetting velocity attains a threshold, and this dynamical wetting transition has been well studied in the situation of plane substrates. We investigate the forced dewetting in a capillary tube using diffuse-interface simulations and lubrication analysis, focusing on the onset of wetting transition and subsequent interface evolution. Results show that the meniscus remains stable when the displacing rate is below a threshold, beyond which film entrainment occurs and eventually leads to the formation of Taylor bubbles separated by liquid slugs, as has also been observed in the recent experiments of Zhao et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 120, 2018, 084501). We derive an analytical solution of the critical capillary number, and demonstrate that the wetting transition is accompanied by a vanishing apparent contact angle and an abrupt drop of the contact-line velocity. Both the bubble and slug lengths are found to depend on the capillary number and the wettability of the wall. A theoretical formula for the bubble length is also proposed and compares favourably with numerical and experimental results.
AgBr-modified Bi2WO6 nanosheets were successfully synthesized using a CTAB-assisted hydrothermal method followed by a facile deposition–precipitation procedure. The as-prepared photocatalysts were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), and photoluminescence emission spectroscopy (PL). AgBr nanoparticles were found evenly distributed on the surface of the Bi2WO6 nanosheets. The AgBr/Bi2WO6 nanocomposite demonstrated enhanced pollutant decolorization efficiency in eliminating Rhodamine B (RhB), methyl orange (MO), and phenol aqueous solutions under simulated solar light irradiation. It has been noticed that the adsorption performance of both Bi2WO6 nanosheets and AgBr-modified Bi2WO6 nanosheets played a more important role in the decolorization of pollutants, such as RhB and MO, than their photocatalytic ability. The high adsorption efficiency of the photocatalysts was mainly attributed to the increased surface area and the exposed reactive facets of the materials.
While hydrodynamic interactions for aggregates of swimmers have received significant attention in the low Reynolds number realm (
), there has been far less work at higher Reynolds numbers, in which fluid and body inertia are involved. Here we study the collective behaviour of multiple self-propelled plates in tandem configurations, which are driven by harmonic flapping motions of identical frequency and amplitude. Both fast modes with compact configurations and slow modes with sparse configurations were observed. The Lighthill conjecture that orderly configurations may emerge passively from hydrodynamic interactions was verified on a larger scale with up to eight plates. The whole group may consist of subgroups and individuals with regular separations. Hydrodynamic forces experienced by the plates near their multiple equilibrium locations are all springlike restoring forces, which stabilize the orderly formation and maintain group cohesion. For the cruising speed of the whole group, the leading subgroup or individual plays the role of ‘leading goose’.
Energetic benefit and enhanced performance are considered among the most fascinating achievements of collective behaviours, e.g. fish schools and flying formations. The collective locomotion of two self-propelled flapping plates initially in a side-by-side arrangement is investigated numerically. Both in-phase and antiphase oscillations for the two plates are considered. It is found that the plates will spontaneously form some stable configurations as a result of the flow-mediated interaction, specifically, the staggered-following (SF) mode and the alternate-leading (AL) mode for the in-phase scenario and the moving abreast (MA) mode and the AL mode for the antiphase scenario. In the SF mode, the rear plate follows the front one with a staggered configuration. In the AL mode, the plates chase each other side-by-side alternately. In terms of propulsive speed and efficiency, the performance of the plates in the SF mode with small lateral spacing
is found to be better than those in the tandem following case (
) and the side-by-side case (i.e. the AL mode). To achieve higher propulsive efficiency, no matter in-phase or antiphase oscillations, the two plates with moderate bending stiffness, e.g.
, are preferred and they should be close enough in the lateral direction. For the side-by-side configuration, the performance of each plate in the antiphase and in-phase scenarios is enhanced and weakened in comparison with that of the isolated plate, respectively. Besides the pressure and vorticity contours, the normal force and thrust acting on the plates are also analysed. It is revealed that the thrust is mainly contributed by the normal force at moderate bending stiffness. The normal force and thrust are critical to the propulsive speed and efficiency. For two self-propelled plates, in view of hydrodynamics, to achieve higher performance the in-phase SF mode and antiphase flappings in the side-by-side configuration are preferred.
To investigate the effects of heat stress on broiler metabolism, we assigned 144 broilers to normal control (NC), heat stress (HS) or pair-fed (PF) groups and then monitored the effects using growth performance, carcass characteristics, biochemical assays and GC-MS-based metabolomics. The up-regulation of cloacal temperature confirmed that our experiment was successful in inducing chronic heat stress. The average daily gain and average daily feed intake of the HS group were significantly lower than those of the NC group, by 28·76 and 18·42 %, respectively (P<0·001), whereas the feed:gain ratio was significantly higher, by 14·49 % (P=0·003), and heat stress also increased leg proportion (P=0·027) and intramuscular fat proportion (P<0·001) and decreased breast proportion (P=0·009). When comparing the HS and NC groups and HS and PF groups, our metabolomics approach identified seventy-eight and thirty-four metabolites, respectively, with significantly different levels (variable importance in the projection values >1 and P<0·05). The greater feed:gain ratio of the HS group was significantly positively correlated with the leg, abdominal fat, subcutaneous fat and intramuscular fat proportions and levels of some free amino acids (proline, l-cysteine, methionine and threonine) but was negatively correlated with breast proportion and levels of some NEFA (stearic acid, arachidonic acid, palmitic acid and oleic acid). These findings indicated that the heat-stressed broilers were in negative energy balance and unable to effectively mobilise fat, thereby resulting in protein decomposition, which subsequently affected growth performance and carcass characteristics.
We numerically investigate the mechanism leading to the entrapment of spheres at the gas–liquid interface after impact. Upon impact onto a liquid pool, a hydrophobic sphere is seen to follow one of the three regimes identified in the experiment (Lee & Kim, Langmuir, vol. 24, 2008, pp. 142–145): sinking, bouncing or being entrapped at the interface. It is important to understand the role of wettability in this process of flow–structure interaction with dynamic wetting, and in particular, to what extent the wettability can determine whether the sphere is entrapped at the interface. For this purpose, a diffuse-interface immersed boundary method is adopted in the numerical simulations. We expand the parameter space considered previously, provide the phase diagrams and identify the key phenomena in the impact dynamics. Then, we propose the scaling models to interpret the critical conditions for the occurrence of sphere entrapment, accounting for the wettability of the sphere. The models are shown to provide a good correlation among the impact inertia of the drop, the surface tension, the wettability and the density ratio of the sphere to the liquid.
The interaction of tandem inverted flexible flags in a uniform flow is investigated. For the inverted flags, their ends are fixed with their heads freely flapping. A direct numerical simulation is performed for which the Reynolds number is of order 200. Large flapping amplitude as well as large drag force is preferred because more energy may be harvested if more bending energy is generated. For the simple case of two tandem inverted flags, the drag force and flapping amplitude of the rear flag are found to be smaller than those of an isolated inverted flag due to the destructive merging mode of vortices. However, it is still unknown whether more bending energy can be generated when coupled inverted flags are arranged properly. To explore the possibility, inverted flags are proposed to be arranged as two rows, which indicate two lines of inverted flags perpendicular to the direction of the incoming flow, and flags in the front and rear rows are in-line or staggered. First the results for infinite flags with periodic boundary condition are presented. In both the in-line and the staggered arrangements, due to the interactions between the front–rear flags, the flapping amplitude or the maximum bending deformation and bending energy of a flag in the rear row can be enhanced, which may be significantly higher than those of an isolated case. Meanwhile, the bending energy of a flag in the front row is close to that of an isolated case. Second, results for finite inverted flag groups show that antiphase synchronization is preferred. When the group number is large enough, the bending energies of the front and rear flags in the inner groups are close to those in the infinite case. This finding may be helpful for the designing of an efficient energy harvesting device using inverted flags.
In this paper, we investigate the ratchet mechanism of drops climbing a vibrated oblique plate based on three-dimensional direct numerical simulations, which for the first time reproduce the existing experiment (Brunet et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 99, 2007, 144501). With the help of numerical simulations, we identify an interesting and important wetting behaviour of the climbing drop; that is, the breaking of symmetry due to the inclination of the plate with respect to the acceleration leads to a hysteresis of the wetted area in one period of harmonic vibration. In particular, the average wetted area in the downhill stage is larger than that in the uphill stage, which is found to be responsible for the uphill net motion of the drop. A new hydrodynamic model is proposed to interpret the ratchet mechanism, taking account of the effects of the acceleration and contact angle hysteresis. The predictions of the theoretical analysis are in good agreement with the numerical results.
In this paper, drop impact onto a sphere is numerically investigated at moderate Reynolds and Weber numbers. It is naturally expected that the aspect ratio of the sphere to the drop,
, would make a big difference to drop spreading and retraction on the sphere, compared with drop impact onto a flat substrate. To quantitatively assess the effect of
, a diffuse-interface immersed-boundary method is adopted after being validated against experiments. With the help of numerical simulations, we identify the key regimes in the spreading and retraction, analyse the results by scaling laws, and quantitatively evaluate the effect of
on the impact dynamics. We find that the thickness of the liquid film spreading on the sphere can be well approximated by
represents the film thickness of drop impact on a flat substrate. At the early stage of spreading, the temporal variation of the wetted area is independent of
when the time is rescaled by the thickness of the liquid film. Drops are observed to retract on the sphere at a roughly constant speed, and the predictions of theoretical analysis are in good agreement with numerical results.
A suspended ellipsoidal particle inside a Poiseuille flow with Reynolds number up to 360 is studied numerically. The effects of tube diameter (
), inertia of the particle and the flow, and the particle geometry (both prolate and oblate ellipsoids) are considered. When a prolate particle with
is inside a wider tube (e.g.
is the length of the major axis of the particle, the terminal stable state is tumbling. When the prolate particle is inside a narrower tube (
), log-rolling or kayaking modes may appear. Which mode occurs depends on the competition between fluid and particle inertia. When the fluid inertia is dominant, the log-rolling mode appears, otherwise, the kayaking mode appears. Inclined and spiral modes may appear when
, respectively. For a prolate ellipsoid with
, there is only the kayaking mode and the log-rolling mode is not observed. When an oblate particle is inside a wider tube (e.g.
), it may adopt the log-rolling mode. Inclined and intermediate modes are firstly identified in narrower tubes. The phase diagram of the modes is also provided. The modes in the phase diagrams were not found to be affected by the initial state of the particle based on limited observation.
Palaeoproterozic metasedimentary rocks, also referred to as khondalites, characterized by Al-rich minerals, are extensively exposed in the nucleus of the Yangtze craton, South China block. Samples of garnet–sillimanite gneiss in the khondalite suite were collected from the Kongling complex for Nd isotopic and elemental geochemical study. These rocks are characterized by variable SiO2 contents ranging from 35.71 to 58.07 wt%, and have low CaO (0.45–0.84 wt%) but high Al2O3 (18.56–29.04 wt%), Cr (174–334 ppm) and Ni (42.5–153 ppm) contents. They have high CIW (Chemical Index of Weathering) values (90.4–94.7), indicating intense chemical weathering of the source material. The samples display light rare earth elements (LREE) enrichment with negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu*=0.40–0.68), and have flat heavy rare earth elements (HREE) patterns. The high contents of transition elements (e.g. Cr, Ni, Sc, V) and moderately radiogenic Nd isotopic compositions suggest that the paragneisses might be those of first-cycle erosion products of predominantly mafic rocks mixing with small amounts of felsic moderately evolved Archaean crustal source. Geochemical and Nd isotopic compositions reveal that at least some of the protoliths of Kongling khondalite were sourced from local pre-existing mafic igneous rocks in a continental arc tectonic setting. Combined with documented zircon U–Pb geochronological data, we propose that the Palaeoproterozoic high-pressure granulite-facies metamorphism, rapid weathering, erosion and deposition of the khondalites in the interior of the Yangtze craton might be related to a Palaeoproterozoic collisional orogenic event during 2.1–1.9 Ga, consistent with the worldwide contemporary orogeny, implying that the Yangtze craton may have been an important component of the Palaeoprotorozoic Columbia supercontinent.
The composite Li-ion battery anode material of Fe2SiO4, Fe3O4, Fe3C (Fe-Si-O) and carbon nanotubes was prepared by a simple one-step reaction between ferrocene and tetraethyl orthosilicate. When cycled at 100 mA g-1, this material exhibited ever-increasing capacities and reached 588 mAh g-1 at the 280th cycle. At 500 mA g-1, a reversible capacity of 350 mAh g-1 was retained for 600 cycles. Compared with Fe3O4 materials, the Fe-Si-O/CNT exhibited superior long-term high-rate performance, which could mainly result from its enhanced stability and conductivities by introducing silicates and CNTs during the one-step synthesis.
In this paper, the recent studies of laboratory astrophysics with strong magnetic fields in China have been reviewed. On the Shenguang-II laser facility of the National Laboratory on High-Power Lasers and Physics, a laser-driven strong magnetic field up to 200 T has been achieved. The experiment was performed to model the interaction of solar wind with dayside magnetosphere. Also the low beta plasma magnetic reconnection (MR) has been studied. Theoretically, the model has been developed to deal with the atomic structures and processes in strong magnetic field. Also the study of shock wave generation in the magnetized counter-streaming plasmas is introduced.
The C14 dates given below have been obtained by counting CO2 at 2 atm pressure in a 1 L proportional counter. Details of procedure are given in our previous list (R., 1970, v. 12, p. 187–192). Radiocarbon dates in this list are based on 95% of activity of NBS oxalic acid as the modern standard and were calculated using 5570 yr as the half-life of C14. Errors quoted with the dates are standard deviation originating from the statistical nature of radioactive disintegration process. Results obtained during 1970 and 1971 are described here.
We investigate the entrainment of liquid films on a partially wetting plate vertically withdrawn from a reservoir of viscous liquid using a combination of diffuse-interface numerical simulation and lubrication analysis. So far available theoretical investigations were commonly conducted by focusing on separate parameter regions, and a complete description of the flow regimes with increasing plate speed is still missing. By solving the full Stokes equations, we present a complete scenario of film transition in the presence of moving contact line. With increasing plate speed, we identify numerically four successive flow regimes in terms of the interfacial morphologies: (1) a stationary meniscus, (2) a speed-independent thick film connected to the liquid bath through a stationary dimple, (3) coexistence of a thick film and the classical Landau–Levich–Derjaguin (LLD) film connected by a propagating capillary shock and (4) a film with a monotonically varying thickness. The characteristics of the film profiles in different regions of the interfaces are analysed with lubrication theory as applicable, and satisfactory agreements with the numerical results are obtained. In particular, we confirm that the onset of film deposition occurs at a vanishing apparent contact angle, consistent with the predictions of lubrication theory. Numerical results suggest that the critical capillary number for the onset of film deposition is smaller than that for the onset of LLD film despite the fact that it is higher than the experimentally observed one, showing that the thick film can be realized in the two-dimensional model. We also demonstrated that the LLD film is triggered by the bifurcation of the stationary dimple, which is found to admit multiple branches of stable and unstable solutions.
Dynamics and instability of a vortex ring impinging on a wall were investigated by means of large eddy simulation for two vortex core thicknesses corresponding to thin and thick vortex rings. Various fundamental mechanisms dictating the flow behaviors, such as evolution of vortical structures, formation of vortices wrapping around vortex rings, instability and breakdown of vortex rings, and transition from laminar to turbulent state, have been studied systematically. The evolution of vortical structures is elucidated and the formation of the loop-like and hair-pin vortices wrapping around the vortex rings (called briefly wrapping vortices) is clarified. Analysis of the enstrophy of wrapping vortices and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) in flow field indicates that the formation and evolution of wrapping vortices are closely associated with the flow transition to turbulent state. It is found that the temporal development of wrapping vortices and the growth rate of axial flow generated around the circumference of the core region for the thin ring are faster than those for the thick ring. The azimuthal instabilities of primary and secondary vortex rings are analyzed and the development of modal energies is investigated to reveal the flow transition to turbulent state. The modal energy decay follows a characteristic –5/3 power law, indicating that the vortical flow has become turbulence. Moreover, it is identified that the TKE with a major contribution of the azimuthal component is mainly distributed in the core region of vortex rings. The results obtained in this study provide physical insight of the mechanisms relevant to the vortical flow evolution from laminar to turbulent state.
The dynamics of viscous fluid flow over a circular flexible plate are studied numerically by an immersed boundary–lattice Boltzmann method for the fluid flow and a finite-element method for the plate motion. When the plate is clamped at its centre and placed in a uniform flow, it deforms by the flow-induced forces exerted on its surface. A series of distinct deformation modes of the plate are found in terms of the azimuthal fold number from axial symmetry to multifold deformation patterns. The developing process of deformation modes is analysed and both steady and unsteady states of the fluid–structure system are identified. The drag reduction due to the plate deformation and the elastic potential energy of the flexible plate are investigated. Theoretical analysis is performed to elucidate the deformation characteristics. The results obtained in this study provide physical insight into the understanding of the mechanisms on the dynamics of the fluid–structure system.
Fluid-structure-interaction problems are ubiquitous, complicated, and not yet well understood. In this paper we investigate the interaction of a leading rigid circular cylinder and a trailing compliant filament and analyze the dynamic responses of the filament in the wake of the cylinder. It is revealed that there exist two flapping states of the filament depending on the cylinder-filament separation distance and the relevant critical distance distinguishing the two states is associated with the Reynolds number and the filament length. It is also found that the drag coefficient of the cylinder is reduced but that of the filament may be increased or decreased depending on its length. Compared with a single filament in a uniform flow, the filament of the same mechanical properties flapping in the wake of the cylinder has a lower frequency and a greater amplitude.
A vortex ring impacting a three-dimensional bump is studied using large eddy simulation for a Reynolds number Re = 4 × 104 based on the initial diameter and translational speed of the vortex ring. The effects of bump height and vortex core thickness for thin and thick vortex rings on the vortical flow phenomena and the underlying physical mechanisms are investigated. Based on the analysis of the evolution of vortical structures, two typical kinds of vortical structures, i.e., the wrapping vortices and the hair-pin vortices, are identified and play an important role in the flow state evolution. The boundary vorticity flux is analyzed to reveal the mechanism of the vorticity generation on the bump surface. The circulation of the primary vortex ring reasonably elucidates some typical phases of flow evolution. Further, the analysis of turbulent kinetic energy reveals the transition from laminar to turbulent state. The results obtained in this study provide physical insight into the understanding of the mechanisms relevant to the flow evolution and the flow transition to turbulent state.