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Evidence of couples’ BMI and its influence on birth weight is limited and contradictory. Therefore, this study aims to assess the association between couple’s preconception BMI and the risk of small for gestational age (SGA)/large for gestational age (LGA) infant, among over 4·7 million couples in a retrospective cohort study based on the National Free Pre-pregnancy Checkups Project between 1 December 2013 and 30 November 2016 in China. Among the live births, 256 718 (5·44 %) SGA events and 506 495 (10·73 %) LGA events were documented, respectively. After adjusting for confounders, underweight men had significantly higher risk (OR 1·17 (95 % CI 1·15, 1·19)) of SGA infants compared with men with normal BMI, while a significant and increased risk of LGA infants was obtained for overweight and obese men (OR 1·08 (95 % CI 1·06, 1·09); OR 1·19 (95 % CI 1·17, 1·20)), respectively. The restricted cubic spline result revealed a non-linear decreasing dose–response relationship of paternal BMI (less than 22·64) with SGA. Meanwhile, a non-linear increasing dose–response relationship of paternal BMI (more than 22·92) with LGA infants was observed. Moreover, similar results about the association between maternal preconception BMI and SGA/LGA infants were obtained. Abnormal preconception BMI in either women or men were associated with increased risk of SGA/LGA infants, respectively. Overall, couple’s abnormal weight before pregnancy may be an important preventable risk factor for SGA/LGA infants.
Anaemia is a global public health problem affecting women worldwide, and reproductive-age women are at increased risk. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study analysing the prevalence of overall anaemia and anaemia according to severity in Chinese pre-pregnant women to update current knowledge on anaemia epidemiology. Based on the National Free Preconception Check-up Projects supported by the Chinese government, 5 679 782 women participating in this project in 2017 were included in the present study. The cyanmethemoglobin method was applied to assess Hb concentrations. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were applied for associated factors. The prevalence of anaemia among Chinese pre-pregnant women was 21·64 % (mild: 14·10 %, moderate: 7·17 % and severe : 0·37 %). The prevalence of overall and severe anaemia was the highest in Tibet and the lowest in Beijing among thirty-one provinces. Women’s age, region, ethnic origin, educational level, occupation and pregnancy history were all correlated with anaemia. Women with B blood type (adjusted OR (aOR) = 0·89), higher BMI (overweight: aOR = 0·84; obesity: aOR = 0·70) and alcohol consumption (aOR = 0·69) were less likely to have anaemia, while those with rhesus negative blood type (aOR = 1·10), history of anaemia (aOR = 2·60), older age at menarche (aOR = 1·19), heavy menstrual blood loss (aOR = 1·39), longer menstrual period (aOR = 1·09) and shorter menstrual cycle (aOR = 1·08) were more likely to suffer from anaemia. Meat or egg eaters were not significantly associated with severe anaemia. Anaemia is of moderate public health significance among Chinese pre-pregnant women. Interventions should be considered to prevent anaemia to the greatest extent possible to avoid potential harm in this population.
Evidence on the relationship between maternal Hb concentration and spontaneous abortion (SA) risk is limited and conflicting. The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether maternal preconception anaemia or high Hb concentration is associated with risk of SA.
A population-based cohort study established between 2013 and 2017.
Local maternal and child care service centres in each county.
In total, 3 971 428 women aged 20–49 years, who participated in National Free Pre-Pregnancy Checkups Project from 2013 to 2016 and successfully got pregnant before 2017 in rural China.
A total of 101 700 (2·56 %) women were recorded having SA, with highest SA rate in women with severe anaemia (4·58 %). Compared with women with Hb of 110–149 g/l, the multivariable-adjusted OR for SA was 1·52 (95 % CI: 1·25, 1·86) for women with Hb < 70 g/l, 0·92 (0·84, 1·01) for 70–99 g/l, 0·80 (0·77, 0·83) for 100–109 g/l, 1·11 (1·08, 1·15) for 150–159 g/l, 1·12 (1·04, 1·20) for 160–169 g/l and 1·02 (0·93, 1·12) for ≥ 170 g/l, respectively. An approximate U-shaped curve for the risk of SA with Hb concentrations was observed when Hb concentrations less than 145 g/l, above which the association plateaued (Pnon-linear < 0·001).
Severe anaemia and high Hb concentration before pregnancy were associated with an increased risk of SA. Women with mild anaemia prior to pregnancy had lower risk of SA. Underlying mechanisms need to be further studied.
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common monogenic kidney disease and is caused by heterozygous germ-line mutations in either PKD1 (85%) or PKD2 (15%). It is characterised by the formation of numerous fluid-filled renal cysts and leads to adult-onset kidney failure in ~50% of patients by 60 years. Kidney cysts in ADPKD are focal and sporadic, arising from the clonal proliferation of collecting-duct principal cells, but in only 1–2% of nephrons for reasons that are not clear. Previous studies have demonstrated that further postnatal reductions in PKD1 (or PKD2) dose are required for kidney cyst formation, but the exact triggering factors are not clear. A growing body of evidence suggests that DNA damage, and activation of the DNA damage response pathway, are altered in ciliopathies. The aims of this review are to: (i) analyse the evidence linking DNA damage and renal cyst formation in ADPKD; (ii) evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of biomarkers to assess DNA damage in ADPKD and finally, (iii) evaluate the potential effects of current clinical treatments on modifying DNA damage in ADPKD. These studies will address the significance of DNA damage and may lead to a new therapeutic approach in ADPKD.
SnSb nanoparticles are dispersed in carbon nanofibers by electrospinning technology and different SnSb precursors, including Sn0.92Sb0.08O2.04 nanoparticles, Sn(CH3COO)2/Sb(CH3COO)3, and SnCl4·5H2O/SbCl3, are used to tune the morphology of the resultant SnSb/C nanofibers. Porous SnSb/C nanofibers are formed during carbonization Sn0.92Sb0.08O2.04 nanoparticles and Sn(CH3COO)2/Sb(CH3COO)3 are used as precursors of SnSb, while solid nanofibers are observed with SnCl4·5H2O/SbCl3 as the precursor indicating the formation mechanism is closely related to the properties of SnSb precursors. Excellent cycling preference (99% capacity retention after 200 cycles) and high coulombic efficiency (above 99% after 10 cycles) are obtained for the SnSb/C nanofibers using Sn0.92Sb0.08O2.04 as precursor, due to its high surface area and stable SnSb/C structure. It is demonstrated that the uniquely designed composite nanofiber structure with excellent lithium storage performance can be realized simply by selecting precursors with appropriate dissolution and decomposition properties.
The phenology of temperate plants is vulnerable to climate change. Yet, the phenological responses of tropical plants to climate change are still unclear. In this study, temporal trends (1973–1999) of four phenological events (budburst, growing season, flowering and flowering duration) were studied among 21 plant species in Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden (south-western China). Fourteen species (67%) showed significant phenological trends during the study period. Seven species (33%) presented delaying trends in budburst (average 1.4 d y−1) and such trend was more likely to be presented in those that started budburst earlier in the dry season. Four species (19%) showed trends of extension in growing season (average of 3.5 d y−1). These vegetative events appeared to be mainly influenced by increasing temperature. Rainfall showed little effects directly, however, the effects of temperature seemed to largely depend on the moisture condition. Flowering duration of five species (24%) was shortened by average 2.1 d y−1 which was most likely to be the result of the decline in sunshine duration during the rainy season. Our results suggest that the phenology of tropical plants has changed significantly in response to the regional climate change but these reactions are somewhat different from those of temperate plants.
Fog drip and related microclimatic factors were measured between January 1999 and December 2002 at a tropical seasonal rain forest in Xishuangbanna, South-West China. During the study period, the annual average fog drip was 89.4±13.5 mm (mean±1 SD). Fog drip contributes an estimated 5% of the annual rainfall, with 86% of the fog drip occurring in the dry season (November–April). Annual fog drip was negatively correlated with annual rainfall. Monthly variation in fog drip was also negatively correlated with monthly rainfall. Average daily fog drip was 0.38±0.27 mm d−1 for all days on which fog drip occurred. Daily fog drip was negatively correlated with minimum air temperature and positively correlated with mean above-canopy wind speed. The results indicate that fog drip is an important additional input of water to this seasonal rain forest during the dry season.
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