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A low-energy proton accelerator named pulsed synchronous linear accelerator (PSLA) is proposed and developed at the Institute of Fluid Physics, which is driven by unipolar-pulsed high voltages. Pulsed-accelerating electric fields and low-energy ion beams are precisely synchronized on temporal and spatial positions for continuous acceleration. The operating mode and the features of the PSLA are introduced. At present, the feasibility of a low-energy proton PSLA has been verified in principle. An average accelerating gradient up to 3 MV/m for protons is achieved.
The relationship of a diet low in fibre with mortality has not been evaluated. This study aims to assess the burden of non-communicable chronic diseases (NCD) attributable to a diet low in fibre globally from 1990 to 2019.
All data were from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2019, in which the mortality, disability-adjusted life-years (DALY) and years lived with disability (YLD) were estimated with Bayesian geospatial regression using data at global, regional and country level acquired from an extensively systematic review.
All data sourced from the GBD Study 2019.
All age groups for both sexes.
The age-standardised mortality rates (ASMR) declined in most GBD regions; however, in Southern sub-Saharan Africa, the ASMR increased from 4·07 (95 % uncertainty interval (UI) (2·08, 6·34)) to 4·60 (95 % UI (2·59, 6·90)), and in Central sub-Saharan Africa, the ASMR increased from 7·46 (95 % UI (3·64, 11·90)) to 9·34 (95 % UI (4·69, 15·25)). Uptrends were observed in the age-standardised YLD rates attributable to a diet low in fibre in a number of GBD regions. The burden caused by diabetes mellitus increased in Central Asia, Southern sub-Saharan Africa and Eastern Europe.
The burdens of disease attributable to a diet low in fibre in Southern sub-Saharan Africa and Central sub-Saharan Africa and the age-standardised YLD rates in a number of GBD regions increased from 1990 to 2019. Therefore, greater efforts are needed to reduce the disease burden caused by a diet low in fibre.
The sequential occurrence of three layers of smooth muscle layers (SML) in human embryos and fetus is not known. Here, we investigated the process of gut SML development in human embryos and fetuses and compared the morphology of SML in fetuses and neonates. The H&E, Masson trichrome staining, and Immunohistochemistry were conducted on 6–12 gestation week human embryos and fetuses and on normal neonatal intestine. We showed that no lumen was seen in 6–7th gestation week embryonic gut, neither gut wall nor SML was developed in this period. In 8–9th gestation week embryonic and fetal gut, primitive inner circular SML (IC-SML) was identified in a narrow and discontinuous gut lumen with some vacuoles. In 10th gestation week fetal gut, the outer longitudinal SML (OL-SML) in gut wall was clearly identifiable, both the inner and outer SML expressed α-SMA. In 11–12th gestation week fetal gut, in addition to the IC-SML and OL-SML, the muscularis mucosae started to develop as revealed by α-SMA immune-reactivity beneath the developing mucosal epithelial layer. Comparing with the gut of fetuses of 11–12th week of gestation, the muscularis mucosae, IC-SML, and OL-SML of neonatal intestine displayed different morphology, including branching into glands of lamina propria in mucosa and increased thickness. In conclusions, in the human developing gut between week-8 to week-12 of gestation, the IC-SML develops and forms at week-8, followed by the formation of OL-SML at week-10, and the muscularis mucosae develops and forms last at week-12.
Sleep disturbance is an important factor in the pathophysiology and progression of psychiatric disorders, but whether it is a cause, or a downstream effect is still not clear.
To investigate causal relationships between three sleep-associated traits and seven psychiatric diseases, we used genetic variants related to insomnia, chronotype and sleep duration to perform a two-sample bidirectional Mendelian randomisation analysis. Summary-level data on psychiatric disorders were extracted from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. Effect estimates were obtained by using the inverse-variance-weighted (IVW), weights modified IVW, weighted-median methods, MR-Egger regression, MR pleiotropy residual sum and outlier (MR-PRESSO) test and Robust Adjusted Profile Score (RAPS).
The causal odds ratio (OR) estimate of genetically determined insomnia was 1.33 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.22–1.45; p = 5.03 × 10−11) for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 1.31 (95% CI 1.25–1.37; p = 6.88 × 10−31) for major depressive disorder (MDD) and 1.32 (95% CI 1.23–1.40; p = 1.42 × 10−16) for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). There were suggestive inverse associations of morningness chronotype with risk of MDD and schizophrenia (SCZ). Genetically predicted sleep duration was also nominally associated with the risk of bipolar disorder (BD). Conversely, PTSD and MDD were associated with an increased risk of insomnia (OR = 1.06, 95% CI 1.03–1.10, p = 7.85 × 10−4 for PTSD; OR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.14–1.64; p = 0.001 for MDD). A suggestive inverse association of ADHD and MDD with sleep duration was also observed.
Our findings provide evidence of potential causal relationships between sleep disturbance and psychiatric disorders. This suggests that abnormal sleep patterns may serve as markers for psychiatric disorders and offer opportunities for prevention and management in psychiatric disorders.
Transmission of varicella occurs frequently in schools and households. We investigated the characteristics of varicella cases derived from within-household transmission and the modes of varicella transmission between school and household settings in Shanghai, China, from 2009 to 2018. Within-household transmission occurred in 278 households, of which 134 transmission events were between children. Sixty-one household varicella transmission events may be attributed to isolation procedures for infected students during school outbreaks, and 7.6% of school outbreaks were caused by schoolchildren cases derived from within-household transmission. The frequency of ‘school-household-school’ transmission adds an additional layer of complexity to the control of school varicella outbreaks. Administration of varicella vaccine as post-exposure prophylaxis after exposure is considered to be an effective measure to control varicella spread within households and schools.
The feature distinguishing typical angiosperms from gymnosperms is that their ovules are enclosed before pollination. Bennettitales were formerly related to angiosperms because of the flower-like organisation of the former's reproductive organs. There is little information on how the naked ovules of Bennettitales became enclosed in angiosperms because fossil evidence for such a transition, if it exists, has not been described. Here, we report a reproductive organ, Zhangwuia gen. nov., from the Middle Jurassic of Inner Mongolia, China. Like many Bennettitales, the arrangement of the foliar parts around the female part in Zhangwuia demonstrates a resemblance to typical angiosperm flowers. It is noteworthy that the ovule is secluded from the exterior space in Zhangwuia, therefore implying the existence of angio-ovuly. Although Bennettitales have been related to angiosperms for more than a hundred years, their way of ovule-enclosing was not previously revealed. The discovery of Zhangwuia prompts a rethinking of the relationship between Bennettitales and angiosperms, as well as of the origin of angiosperms.
We investigate numerically the rotational behaviour of a circular porous particle suspended in a two-dimensional (2D) simple shear flow with fluid inertia at particle shear Reynolds number up to 108. We use the volume-averaged macroscopic momentum equation to formulate the flow field inside and outside the moving porous particle, which is solved by a modified single relaxation time lattice Boltzmann method. The effects of fluid inertia, confinement of the bounding walls, and permeability of the particle are studied. Our two-dimensional simulation results confirm that the permeability has little effect on the rotation of a porous particle in unbounded shear flow without fluid inertia (Masoud, Stone & Shelley, J. Fluid Mech., vol. 733, 2013, R6), but also suggest that the role of permeability cannot be neglected when the confinement effect is significant, or the fluid inertia is not negligible. The fluid inertia and the confined walls have similar effects on the rotation of a porous particle as that on a solid impermeable particle. The angular velocity decays with an increase in fluid inertia, and the confinement effect suppresses the angular velocity to a shear rate ratio below 0.5. A simple scaling argument based on the balance of torque exerted by fluid flows adjacent to the two bounding walls and that due to the flow recirculation can explain our results.
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