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Early functional neural development is increasingly recognized as important for revealing the developmental origins of human cognitive-motor function and related disorders. Previous studies focusing on fetuses and neonates have revealed sophisticated behaviors and cognitive repertoires, indicating that fetuses begin learning through sensorimotor experience even inside the uterus. Despite accumulating evidence supporting the importance of sensorimotor experience in neural development as early as the fetal period, the developmental mechanisms by which intrauterine sensorimotor experience guides cortical learning, including factors in prenatal experience that are needed for normal development, remain unclear. However, investigating causal links between sensorimotor experience and cortical learning is particularly challenging in human fetuses owing to technical and ethical difficulties. Therefore, computational approaches based on comprehensive biological data about nervous system, body, and environment have been developed to probe mechanisms underlying early functional brain development. In this chapter, we show how an embodied approach focusing on interactions among brain, body, and environment offers opportunities to explore relations between functional neural development and sensorimotor experience.
This study of loneliness across adult lifespan examined its associations with sociodemographics, mental health (positive and negative psychological states and traits), subjective cognitive complaints, and physical functioning.
Analysis of cross-sectional data
340 community-dwelling adults in San Diego, California, mean age 62 (SD = 18) years, range 27–101 years, who participated in three community-based studies.
Loneliness measures included UCLA Loneliness Scale Version 3 (UCLA-3), 4-item Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Social Isolation Scale, and a single-item measure from the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CESD) scale. Other measures included the San Diego Wisdom Scale (SD-WISE) and Medical Outcomes Survey- Short form 36.
Seventy-six percent of subjects had moderate-high levels of loneliness on UCLA-3, using standardized cut-points. Loneliness was correlated with worse mental health and inversely with positive psychological states/traits. Even moderate severity of loneliness was associated with worse mental and physical functioning. Loneliness severity and age had a complex relationship, with increased loneliness in the late-20s, mid-50s, and late-80s. There were no sex differences in loneliness prevalence, severity, and age relationships. The best-fit multiple regression model accounted for 45% of the variance in UCLA-3 scores, and three factors emerged with small-medium effect sizes: wisdom, living alone and mental well-being.
The alarmingly high prevalence of loneliness and its association with worse health-related measures underscore major challenges for society. The non-linear age-loneliness severity relationship deserves further study. The strong negative association of wisdom with loneliness highlights the potentially critical role of wisdom as a target for psychosocial/behavioral interventions to reduce loneliness. Building a wiser society may help us develop a more connected, less lonely, and happier society.
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