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All kinds of primeval perturbations of the Universe should result in fluctuations of the microwave background radio emission. Here we report our latest upper limits to these fluctuations on scales 5′ to 3°. Using the new 600-m Soviet Radio Telescope we obtained a mean temperature profile of the region from 08h to 15h in R.A., centred at the declination of the Coma Cluster. 20 good records of this region were used in the final reduction of the data. After “normalization” of these data by filtering out low-frequency atmospheric noise and “bursts” which exceed the 4σ level we calculated an upper limit to the fluctuations of the microwave background radiation.
Thousands of papers in the field of radio astronomy have appeared during the last three years. Even simple enumeration of the major achievements will take much more space than it has been allocated to Commission 40. Therefore, taking into account the tendency of the previous years, much greater attention in the present report has been paid to the actual material and references (mainly of observational and methodological character). As to the interpretation of observations, much overlapping has occurred with Commissions 10 and 34. Solar radio astronomy had to be excluded from the report of Commission 40 in view of its practically complete overlapping with the report of Commission 10. Physical interpretation of insterstellar medium observations carried out by radio techniques during the three years has been included in the report of Commission 34. Even in this case we have been forced, as in the previous years, to introduce some additional abbreviations of the most widely used journals in the sections containing a great number of references. These abbreviations are given below.
We shall tell you briefly about the main observational program connected with radio galaxies. Different theories of radio galaxies predict different types of spectral index variations across the main body of the source. One would expect that the best solution of the problem is the construction of two-dimensional maps at a number of frequencies. However, we suggest that in some cases (i.e., for standard well-aligned structures) one-dimensional images with filled aperture may be much more accurate in determination of the variations of the spectral index along the major axes of radio galaxies. We now have 47 one-dimensional multifrequency images of all sources brighter than 1 Jy at centimeter wavelengths in the declination range −43° −+53° resolvable with our beam. Up to 7 frequencies were used (1.35, 2.08, 3.9, 6.5, 8.2, 13, and 31 cm). Cyg A is the best example showing structures of different scale: nuclear sources, bridges, main bubbles, and hot spots.
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