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Endothelial dysfunction is a marked feature of Kawasaki disease during convalescence, but its pathogenesis is currently unclear. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are associated with the progression of Kawasaki disease. However, the role and mechanism of circulating miRNAs in endothelial dysfunction are largely unknown. Kawasaki disease patients were found to have a unique circulating miRNA profile, including upregulation of miRNA-210-3p, miR-184 and miR-19a-3p, compared to non-Kawasaki disease febrile controls. This study aimed to investigate the effects of these three miRNAs on endothelial function.
Overexpression of miRNAs in human umbilical vein endothelial cells was done by transfection of miRNA mimics. The tube formation assay was used to evaluate the function of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The potential binding sites of miRNAs on 3’untranslated regions were predicted by using TargetScan database and validated by dual luciferase reporter assay. The protein expression of AGO2, PTEN and VEGF in human umbilical vein endothelial cells was detected by Western blot. Overexpression of AGO2 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells was done by transfection of AGO2 expression plasmids.
Overexpression of miRNA-184 and miRNA-19a-3p, but not miR-210-3p, impaired the function of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Mechanistically, miR-184 and miR-19a-3p could target the 3’untranslated regions of AGO2 mRNA to downregulate its expression and subsequently impede the AGO2/PTEN/VEGF axis. To be noted, the rescue of the expression of AGO2 remarkably recovered the function that was impaired by overexpression of miRNA-184 and miRNA-19a-3p.
This study suggested that miR-184 and miR-19a-3p could target AGO2/PTEN/VEGF axis to induce endothelial dysfunction in Kawasaki disease.
High-performance mullite-based composite ceramics were prepared successfully using natural kaolin and alumina as raw materials and ZrO2 as an additive. The influence of sintering temperature and ZrO2 content on the sintering behaviour and mechanical properties of zirconia-toughened mullite ceramics was studied systematically. With increasing sintering temperature from 1450°C to 1560°C, the primary phases of as-sintered composite ceramics were mullite and corundum with a small amount of ZrO2, and the bulk density of the composite ceramics increased from 2.29 to 2.72 g cm–3. Furthermore, the ZrO2 phase transition promoted transgranular fracture, and ZrO2 grains were pinned at the grain boundaries, thereby enhancing the mechanical strength of the composite ceramics. Moreover, the AZS12 sample, with 12 wt.% ZrO2 and sintered at 1560°C, had the greatest flexural strength and fracture toughness of 91.6 MPa and 2.47 MPa m–1/2, respectively. Adding ZrO2 to the composite ceramics increased their flexural strength by ~37.6%.
It is unclear whether the enhancing contact model (ECM) intervention is effective in reducing family caregiving burden and improving hope and quality of life (QOL) among family caregivers of persons with schizophrenia (FCPWS).
We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial in FCPWS in eight rural townships in Xinjin, Chengdu, China. In total, 253 FCPWS were randomly allocated to the ECM, psychoeducational family intervention (PFI), or treatment as usual (TAU) group. FCPWS in three groups were assessed caregiving burden, QOL and state of hope at baseline (T0), post-intervention (T1), 3-month (T2), and 9-month (T3) follow-up, respectively.
Compared with participants in the TAU group, participants in the ECM group had statistically significantly lower caregiving burden scores both at T1 and T2 (p = 0.0059 and 0.0257, respectively). Compared with participants in the TAU group, participants in the PFI group had statistically significantly higher QOL scores in T1 (p = 0.0406), while participants in the ECM group had statistically significantly higher QOL scores in T3 (p = 0.0240). Participants in both ECM and PFI groups had statistically significantly higher hope scores than those in the TAU group at T1 (p = 0.0160 and 0.0486, respectively).
This is the first study to explore the effectiveness of ECM on reducing family caregiving burden and improving hope and QOL in rural China. The results indicate the ECM intervention, a comprehensive and multifaceted intervention, is more effective than the PFI in various aspects of mental wellbeing among FCPWS. Future research needs to confirm ECM's effectiveness in various population.
Our research question was to evaluate the chromosome concordance of trophectoderm (TE) biopsy with noninvasive chromosome screening (NICS) using embryo culture medium renewed twice on Day 3 (D3) and Day 4 (D4). In this study, we evaluated 64 cycles with 223 biopsied blastocysts. These were categorized into two groups based on replacing embryo culture medium on D3 (control group) or on D3 and D4 (experimental group). The fundamental characteristics and main outcomes were compared. The concordance rates of NICS results with TE biopsy were determined according to next generation sequencing results. In total, 103 experimental and 120 control embryo cultures were collected, and the euploid status was analyzed using NICS technology. The overall concordance rates with TE biopsy of the experimental and control groups were 0.86 and 0.75, respectively. Statistically significant difference was found between the two groups. An additional medium renewal of the D4 embryo culture can improve the concordance of NICS with TE biopsy.
Let N be a sufficiently large integer. We prove that, with at most
exceptions, all even positive integers up to N can be represented in the form
are prime numbers.
The southern Great Xing’an Range (SGXR), located in the eastern segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), is one of the most economically important Cu–Mo–Fe–Sn–Pb–Zn–Ag metallogenic provinces in China. The newly discovered Panjiaduan Cu–Pb–Zn deposit (9.3 Mt; at 1.36% Cu, 2.90% Pb, 3.80% Zn and 38.12 g/t Ag), located in the SE segment of the SGXR, is primarily hosted in fracture zones in volcanic rocks and granodiorite of the Manitu Formation. Four paragenetic stages of metallic mineralization are identified: (I) quartz-pyrite-arsenopyrite; (II) quartz-polymetallic sulphide; (III) quartz-galena-sphalerite-argentite; and (IV) quartz-calcite-minor sulphide. The hydrothermal quartz contains three types of primary fluid inclusion (FIs): vapour-rich two-phase liquid-vapour (LV-type), liquid-rich two-phase liquid-vapour (VL-type) and three-phase liquid-vapour-solid FIs (SL-type). Stages I and II contain all types with homogenization temperatures (Th) of 324–386 °C and 276–334 °C as well as salinities of 0.7–38.0 wt% and 0.9–34.7 wt%, respectively, whereas stage III is composed of VL- and LV-type FIs with Th of 210–269 °C and salinities of 0.5–7.2 wt%. Only VL-type FIs occur in stage IV, with Th of 139–185 °C and salinities of 1.6–4.2 wt%. The δ18OH2O and δD values vary from −15.7 to 2.6‰ and −132.7 to −110.2‰, respectively, indicating predominant meteoric water with an initial magmatic source. The He–Ar isotopic compositions of the pyrite inclusions from the Panjiaduan Cu–Pb–Zn veins suggest that fluids were derived from the crust.
The codling moth Cydia pomonella is a major pest of global significance impacting pome fruits and walnuts. It threatens the apple industry in the Loess Plateau and Bohai Bay in China. Sterile insect technique (SIT) could overcome the limitations set by environmentally compatible area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) approaches such as mating disruption and attract-kill that are difficult to suppress in a high-density pest population, as well as the development of insecticide resistance. In this study, we investigated the effects of X-ray irradiation (183, 366, 549 Gy) on the fecundity and fertility of a laboratory strain of C. pomonella, using a newly developed irradiator, to evaluate the possibility of X-rays as a replacement for Cobalt60 (60Co-γ) and the expanded future role of this approach in codling moth control. Results show that the 8th-day is the optimal age for irradiation of male pupae. The fecundity decreased significantly as the dosage of radiation increased. The mating ratio and mating number were not influenced. However, treated females were sub-sterile at a radiation dose of 183 Gy (20.93%), and were almost 100% sterile at a radiation dose of 366 Gy or higher. Although exposure to a radiation dose of 366 Gy resulted in a significant reduction in the mating competitiveness of male moths, our radiation biology results suggest that this new generation of X-ray irradiator has potential applications in SIT programs for future codling moth control.
In the past 10–15 years, the government of China has made various efforts in tackling excessive antibiotics use. Yet, little is known about their effects at rural primary care settings. This study aimed to determine the impact of government policies and the COVID-19 pandemic on antibiotic prescribing practices at such settings utilizing data from separate studies carried out pre- and during the pandemic, in 2016 and 2021 in Anhui province, China, using identical sampling and survey approaches. Data on antibiotics prescribed, diagnosis, socio-demographic, etc., were obtained through non-participative observation and a structured exit survey. Data analysis comprised mainly descriptive comparisons of 1153 and 762 patients with respiratory infections recruited in 2016 and 2021, respectively. The overall antibiotics prescription rate decreased from 89.6% in 2016 to 69.1% in 2021, and the proportion of prescriptions for two or more classes of antibiotics was estimated as 35.9% in 2016 and 11.0% in 2021. There was a statistically significant decrease in the number of days from symptom onset to clinic visits between the year groups. In conclusion, measures to constrain excessive prescription of antibiotics have led to some improvements at the rural primary care level, and the COVID-19 pandemic has had varying effects on antibiotic use.
Energy homeostasis is essential for organisms to maintain fluctuation in energy accumulation, mobilization. Lipids as the main energy reserve in insects, their metabolism is under the control of many physiological program. This study aimed to determine whether the adipokinetic hormone receptor (AKHR) was involved in the lipid mobilization in the Spodoptera litura. A full-length cDNA encoding AKHR was isolated from S. litura. The SlAKHR protein has a conserved seven-transmembrane domain which is the character of a putative G protein receptor. Expression profile investigation revealed that SlAKHR mRNA was highly expressed in immatural stage and abundant in fat body in newly emerged female adults. Knockdown of SlAKHR expression was achieved through RNAi by injecting double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into the 6th instar larvae. The content of triacylgycerol (TAG) in the fat body increased significantly after the SlAKHR gene was knockdown. And decrease of TAG releasing to hemolymph with increase of free fatty acid (FFA) in hemolymph were observed when the SlAKHR gene was knowned-down. In addition, lipid droplets increased in fat body was also found. These results suggested that SlAKHR is critical for insects to regulate lipids metabolism.
To explore whether embryo culture with melatonin (MT) can improve the embryonic development and clinical outcome of patients with repeated cycles after in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) failure, immature oocytes from controlled ovarian superovulation cycles were collected for in vitro maturation (IVM) and ICSI. The obtained embryos were cultured in 0, 10–11, 10–9, 10–7 and 10–5 M MT medium respectively, and 10–9 M was screened out as the optimal concentration. Subsequently, 140 patients who underwent failed IVF/ICSI cycles received 140 cycles of embryo culture in vitro with a medium containing 10–9 M MT, these 140 MT culture cycles were designated as the experimental group (10–9 M group), and the control group was the previous failed cycles of patients (0 M group). The results showed that the fertilization, cleavage, high-quality embryo, blastocyst, and high-quality blastocyst rates of the 10–9 M group were significantly higher than those of the 0 M group (P < 0.01; P < 0.01; P < 0.0001; P < 0.0001; P < 0.0001). To date, in total, 50 vitrified-warmed cycle transfers have been performed in the 10–9 M group and the implantation rate, biochemical pregnancy rate and clinical pregnancy rate were significantly higher than those in the 0 M group (all P < 0.0001). Two healthy infants were delivered successfully and the other 18 women who achieved clinical pregnancy also had good examination indexes. Therefore the application of 10–9 M MT to embryo cultures in vitro improved embryonic development in patients with repeated cycles after failed IVF/ICSI cycles and had good clinical outcomes.
The Eastern Depression in the Bayanhaote Basin in western Inner Mongolia has experienced multi-stage Meso-Cenozoic tectonic events and possesses considerable exploration potential. However, structural deformation patterns, sequences and the genesis of oil-bearing structures in the basin are still poorly understood. In this study, based on high-quality 2D seismic data and drilling and well-logging data, we elucidate the activities and structural styles of faults, the tectonic evolution and the distribution characteristics of styles, as well as assessing potential petroleum traps in the Eastern Depression. Five types of faults that were active at different stages of the Meso-Cenozoic faults have been recognized: long-lived normal faults active since the late Middle Jurassic; reverse faults and strike-slip faults active in the late Late Jurassic; normal faults active in the Early Cretaceous; normal faults active in the Oligocene; and negative inverted faults active in the Early Cretaceous and Oligocene. These faults constituted 12 geometric styles in NE-trending belts at various stratigraphic levels, and were formed by compression, strike-slip, extension and inversion. The temporal development of structural styles promoted the formation and reconstruction and finalization of structural traps, while regional unconformities and open reverse and strike-slip faults provided migration pathways for petroleum to fill the traps. In general, potential traps that formed by compressional movement and strike-slip movement in the late Late Jurassic are primarily faulted anticlines. Those traps developed in Carboniferous rocks and are located in the southwestern region of the Eastern Depression, being controlled by NNE-NE-striking reverse and transpressive faults.
There is a lack of evidence related to the prevalence of mental health symptoms as well as their heterogeneities during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Latin America, a large area spanning the equator. The current study aims to provide meta-analytical evidence on mental health symptoms during COVID-19 among frontline healthcare workers, general healthcare workers, the general population and university students in Latin America.
Bibliographical databases, such as PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, PsycINFO and medRxiv, were systematically searched to identify pertinent studies up to August 13, 2021. Two coders performed the screening using predefined eligibility criteria. Studies were assigned quality scores using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. The double data extraction method was used to minimise data entry errors.
A total of 62 studies with 196 950 participants in Latin America were identified. The pooled prevalence of anxiety, depression, distress and insomnia was 35%, 35%, 32% and 35%, respectively. There was a higher prevalence of mental health symptoms in South America compared to Central America (36% v. 28%, p < 0.001), in countries speaking Portuguese (40%) v. Spanish (30%). The pooled prevalence of mental health symptoms in the general population, general healthcare workers, frontline healthcare workers and students in Latin America was 37%, 34%, 33% and 45%, respectively.
The high yet heterogenous level of prevalence of mental health symptoms emphasises the need for appropriate identification of psychological interventions in Latin America.
The present study aimed to explore the association between dietary patterns in abdominal obesity obtained by reduced-rank regression (RRR) with visceral fat index (VFI) as a dependent variable and dyslipidemia in rural adults in Henan, China. A total of 29538 people aged 18–79 were selected from the Henan Rural Cohort Study. RRR analysis was used to identify dietary patterns; logistic regression analysis and restricted cubic spline regression models were applied to analyze the association between dietary patterns in abdominal obesity and dyslipidemia. VFI was used as a mediator to estimate the mediation effect. The dietary pattern in abdominal obesity was characterized by high carbohydrate and red meat intake and low consumption of fresh fruits, vegetables, milk, etc. After full adjustment, the highest quartile of dietary pattern scores was significantly associated with an increased risk of dyslipidemia (OR: 1·33, 95 % CI 1·23–1·44, Ptrend < 0·001), there was a non-linear dose–response relationship between them (Poverall-association < 0·001, Pnon-lin-association = 0·022). The result was similar in dose-response between the dietary pattern scores and VFI. The indirect effect partially mediated by VFI was significant (OR: 1·07, 95 % CI 1·06–1·08). VIF explained approximately 53·3 % of odds of dyslipidemia related to the dietary pattern. Abdominal obesity dietary pattern scores positively affected VFI and dyslipidemia; there was a dose-response in both relationships. Dyslipidemia progression increased with higher abdominal obesity dietary pattern scores. In addition, VFI played a partial mediating role in relationship between abdominal obesity dietary pattern and dyslipidemia.
Deficits in event-related potential (ERP) including duration mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a have been demonstrated widely in chronic schizophrenia (SZ) but inconsistent findings were reported in first-episode patients. Psychotropic medications and diagnosis might contribute to different findings on MMN/P3a ERP in first-episode patients. The present study examined MMN and P3a in first episode drug naïve SZ and bipolar disorder (BPD) patients and explored the relationships among ERPs, neurocognition and global functioning.
Twenty SZ, 24 BPD and 49 age and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Data of clinical symptoms [Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS), Young Manic Rating Scale (YMRS), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD)], neurocognition [Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), Cattell's Culture Fair Intelligence Test (CCFT), Delay Matching to Sample (DMS), Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVP)], and functioning [Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST)] were collected. P3a and MMN were elicited using a passive auditory oddball paradigm.
Significant MMN and P3a deficits and impaired neurocognition were found in both SZ and BPD patients. In SZ, MMN was significantly correlated with FAST (r = 0.48) and CCFT (r = −0.31). In BPD, MMN was significantly correlated with DMS (r = −0.54). For P3a, RVP and FAST scores were significant predictors in SZ, whereas RVP, WAIS and FAST were significant predictors in BPD.
The present study found deficits in MMN, P3a, neurocognition in drug naïve SZ and BPD patients. These deficits appeared to link with levels of higher-order cognition and functioning.
Nutritional Risk Screening index is a standard tool to assess nutritional risk, but epidemiological data are scarce on controlling nutritional status (CONUT) as a prognostic marker in acute haemorrhagic stroke (AHS). We aimed to explore whether the CONUT may predict a 3-month functional outcome in AHS. In total, 349 Chinese patients with incident AHS were consecutively recruited, and their malnutrition risks were determined using a high CONUT score of ≥ 2. The cohort patients were divided into high-CONUT (≥ 2) and low-CONUT (< 2) groups, and primary outcomes were a poor functional prognosis defined as the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of ≥ 3 at post-discharge for 3 months. Odds ratios (OR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for the poor functional prognosis at post-discharge were estimated by using a logistic analysis with additional adjustments for unbalanced variables between the high-CONUT and low-CONUT groups. A total of 328 patients (60·38 ± 12·83 years; 66·77 % male) completed the mRS assessment at post-discharge for 3 months, with 172 patients at malnutrition risk at admission and 104 patients with a poor prognosis. The levels of total cholesterol and total lymphocyte counts were significantly lower in high-CONUT patients than low-CONUT patients (P = 0·012 and < 0·001, respectively). At 3-month post discharge, there was a greater risk for the poor outcome in the high-CONUT compared with the low-CONUT patients at admission (OR: 2·32, 95 % CI: 1·28, 4·17). High-CONUT scores independently predict a 3-month poor prognosis in AHS, which helps to identify those who need additional nutritional managements.
The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term outcome of quality of life (QOL) in the lower-limb amputees 10 years after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake.
In the cross-sectional study, 66 lower-limb amputees were recruited. The prosthetics-related QOL was assessed using the Prosthetic Evaluation Questionnaire (PEQ) in terms of the scales of utility, appearance, sounds, residual limb health, perceived response, frustration, social burden, ambulation, and well-being. The score of each PEQ subscale was calculated and compared among the cohorts with different demographic characteristics.
The PEQ scores showed that the scales of sounds, residual limb health, and frustration were still low in the lower-limb amputees 10 years after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake. The comparison of PEQ scales among cohorts with different demographic characteristics indicated that the potential demographic risk factors, namely, age, marital status, educational level, living independence, and comorbidity, were associated with prosthesis-related QOL.
The prosthesis-related QOL of the lower-limb amputees 10 years after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake has been partly documented in this study. The potential demographic risk factors associated with QOL of amputees were also identified. These findings could enhance the understanding of prosthesis-related QOL of lower-limb amputees sustained in an earthquake and facilitate the optimization of post-disaster rehabilitation strategies.
The effect of vitamin D (VD) on the risk of preeclampsia (PE) is uncertain. Few of previous studies focused on the relationship between dietary VD intake and PE risk. Therefore, we conducted this 1:1 matched case–control study to explore the association of dietary VD intake and serum VD concentrations with PE risk in Chinese pregnant women. A total of 440 pairs of participants were recruited during March 2016 to June 2019. Dietary information was obtained using a seventy-eight-item semi-quantitative FFQ. Serum concentrations of 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 were measured by liquid chromatography–tandem MS. Multivariate conditional logistic regression was used to estimate OR and 95 % CI. Restricted cubic splines (RCS) were plotted to evaluate the dose–response relationship of dietary VD intake and serum VD concentrations with PE risk. Compared with the lowest quartile, the OR of the highest quartile were 0·45 (95 % CI 0·29, 0·71, Ptrend = 0·001) for VD dietary intake and 0·26 (95 % CI 0·11, 0·60, Ptrend = 0·003) for serum levels after adjusting for confounders. In addition, the RCS analysis suggested a reverse J-shaped relationship between dietary VD intake and PE risk (P-nonlinearity = 0·02). A similar association was also found between serum concentrations of total 25(OH)D and PE risk (P-nonlinearity = 0·02). In conclusion, this study provides evidence that higher dietary intake and serum levels of VD are associated with the lower risk of PE in Chinese pregnant women.
Packaging waste has become a significant problem in China. The paper stems from growing awareness of packaging and environmental protection.
To explore the perception of Chinese consumers on packaging and sustainability, the research takes Wuzhen as a case, based on the economic situation, industrial advantages and potential for implementing sustainable measures. It also investigates the current situation of packaging design in the town. By using empirical analysis in the form of questionnaire and semi-structured interview, the survey was carried out from three aspects: tourist attitude towards shopping products in Wuzhen, tourist perceptions of packaging characteristics, tourist perceived importance of sustainable. In the end, the paper discusses the packaging design of Wuzhen from the perspective of materials, function and design. This research is aimed to explore Chinese consumers' views of packaging and environmental sustainability and provide insights to the packaging industry to further enhance the effectiveness of environmentally packaging.
Congenital domestic absence of vas deferens (CBAVD) is a common factor in male infertility, and percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA) combined with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is a primary clinical treatment, but the effect of the sperm obtained on pregnancy outcome remains to be explored. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between sperm motility with clinical outcome of PESA–ICSI in infertile males with CBAVD. A cohort of 110 couples was enrolled. In total, 76 infertile males were included in the high motility group, while the remaining 34 males were placed in the low motility group. Clinical pregnancy, embryo implantation rate and live birth rate were included as the primary outcome. After all follow-ups, we found that the high motility group achieved higher normal fertilization rates, cleavage rates, transplantable embryo rates and high-quality embryo rates than those in low motility group (normal fertilization rate, 78.2 ± 11.7% vs. 70.5 ± 10.2%, P = 0.003; cleavage rate, 97.1 ± 2.9% vs. 92.3 ± 3.0%, P = 0.000; transplantable embryo rate, 66.8 ± 14.9% vs. 58.6 ± 12.6%, P = 0.009 and high-quality embryo rate, 49.9 ± 10.5% vs. 40.5 ± 11.2%, P = 0.000). Additionally, compared with the low motility group, the clinical pregnancy rates, embryo implantation rates, and live birth rates in the high motility group were significantly increased (pregnancy rate, 61.8% vs. 26.5%, P = 0.009; embryo implantation rate, 36.5% vs. 18.0%, P = 0.044; live birth rate, 55.3% vs. 17.6%, P = 0.000). We concluded that the motility of sperm obtained by PESA affected the clinical outcome of ICSI in infertile males with CBAVD.