To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The concentration of radiocarbon (14C) differs between ocean and atmosphere. Radiocarbon determinations from samples which obtained their 14C in the marine environment therefore need a marine-specific calibration curve and cannot be calibrated directly against the atmospheric-based IntCal20 curve. This paper presents Marine20, an update to the internationally agreed marine radiocarbon age calibration curve that provides a non-polar global-average marine record of radiocarbon from 0–55 cal kBP and serves as a baseline for regional oceanic variation. Marine20 is intended for calibration of marine radiocarbon samples from non-polar regions; it is not suitable for calibration in polar regions where variability in sea ice extent, ocean upwelling and air-sea gas exchange may have caused larger changes to concentrations of marine radiocarbon. The Marine20 curve is based upon 500 simulations with an ocean/atmosphere/biosphere box-model of the global carbon cycle that has been forced by posterior realizations of our Northern Hemispheric atmospheric IntCal20 14C curve and reconstructed changes in CO2 obtained from ice core data. These forcings enable us to incorporate carbon cycle dynamics and temporal changes in the atmospheric 14C level. The box-model simulations of the global-average marine radiocarbon reservoir age are similar to those of a more complex three-dimensional ocean general circulation model. However, simplicity and speed of the box model allow us to use a Monte Carlo approach to rigorously propagate the uncertainty in both the historic concentration of atmospheric 14C and other key parameters of the carbon cycle through to our final Marine20 calibration curve. This robust propagation of uncertainty is fundamental to providing reliable precision for the radiocarbon age calibration of marine based samples. We make a first step towards deconvolving the contributions of different processes to the total uncertainty; discuss the main differences of Marine20 from the previous age calibration curve Marine13; and identify the limitations of our approach together with key areas for further work. The updated values for ΔR, the regional marine radiocarbon reservoir age corrections required to calibrate against Marine20, can be found at the data base http://calib.org/marine/.
This chapter argues that the tasks and processes of wine production undertaken by small‑scale producers not only serve to bring forth or unlock a ‘sense of place’ in the wine but can also be seen to continuously produce place itself. In the skilled performance of these tasks, winegrowers engage intimately with the world around them at a sensorial level: including touching the soil and the vines, feeling the sun, wind and rain in the vineyard, smelling and feeling the warmth of the fermenting grapes, and tasting the wine at different stages of its production. For many, such physical interaction (hands‑on doing) is extremely desirable in wine production, as wine's ‘authenticity’ is often considered to relate to the close interaction of people and place working in concert. It is this sort of deep and attentive sensorial engagement of people with their worlds, over time, that provides not only practical and intellectual ‘knowledge’ but also a rich topography of feelings and emotions attached to places and landscapes. I argue that the production of this sort of emotional space, via the hands‑on tasks and activities of small‑scale wine production, is a crucial element in the development among many such winegrowers of a relational or animic perspective, through which they see themselves, their vines, wines and other aspects of their worlds as fundamentally intertwined and interrelated. Wines, vines and wine places are thus invested with ‘meanings’ and ‘emotions’ — social products which are nevertheless linked inextricably to the sensuous materiality of production and consumption.
Too many people sit in air conditioned cabins in their tractors, with a charcoal filter so they can't smell anything and a CD player so they can't hear anything, driving up and down the [vine] rows, and they're not connecting to the land … As a farmer, I think that you need to be really sensitive to the land: to feel the soil, touch the plants, take care and do things by hand. That's why we use basket presses as well. You could do it just as well with mechanised techniques but to actually do it by hand, to feel the grapes and work with them gently, you learn a lot more about what you're doing. (Peter, 17 April 2012)
In this second volume of the New South African Review, the New Growth Path adopted by the South African government in 2010 provides the basis for a dialogue about whether ‘decent work’ is the best solution to South Africa’s problems of low economic growth and high unemployment. There are investigations into rising inequality against the backdrop of the failings of Black Economic Empowerment; ‘greening the economy’, with emphasis on biofuels; the crisis of acid mine drainage on the Witwatersrand; possibilities for participatory forms of government; civil society activism; transformation of the print media and the SABC; the crisis in child care in public hospitals; the relationship between the police and a township community; the problems related to the absence of legislation to govern the powers of traditional authorities over land allocation; and assessments of the state of opposition political parties and the ANC Alliance. Asking whether the New Growth Plan reflects a set of new policies or an attempt to re-dress old (com)promises in new clothes, this volume brings together different voices in debate about possibilities for alternatives to neo-liberal and capitalist development in South Africa.
We describe the investigation of a tuberculosis (TB) exposure in which a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) respiratory therapist was the index patient, as well as the rationale by which exposed infants were managed and possible explanations for the lack of transmission to these patients.
Description of an exposure investigation.
Academic, level IV NICU of a tertiary care children's hospital.
Contacts of a respiratory therapist with pulmonary TB disease, including household members, healthcare coworkers, and infant patients.
In addition to 5 household contacts, 248 healthcare coworkers and 180 infant patients were identified as possibly exposed during the 24 days that the index patient worked between December 3, 2004, and January 30, 2005. Tuberculin skin tests (TSTs) were performed for 233 of the 235 contacts with the greatest degree of exposure (household and coworker contacts) who had a previously documented negative TST result or whose TST status was unknown prior to the investigation. No cases of latent tuberculosis infection or TB disease were identified. Because of characteristics of the index case, the exposure duration and setting, the infants' small lung volumes, and lack of evidence of transmission to higher-risk contacts, infants were not clinically evaluated or empirically treated for TB disease. Surveillance for subsequent illness was carried out by primary healthcare providers and parents. No TB disease or unexplained illness in these infants was reported in the 20 months following the exposure.
After limited hospital exposure to a healthcare worker with pulmonary TB disease who is not highly contagious, neonates can be safely managed without specific evaluation for TB disease or empirical treatment.
110 isolates of Beauveria (104 B. bassiana, 5 Beauveria spp., 1 B. brongniartii) were obtained from Sunn Pests (Eurygaster and Aelia species), litter, and other insect samples at overwintering sites in seven countries in the Middle East and West Asia. DNA was extracted from these isolates, and four techniques were used to characterize and to investigate genetic diversity at the molecular level: ITS-RFLP, ITS sequencing, ISSR-PCR, and AFLP. The ITS-RFLP and ITS sequences did not detect significant genetic variation among the isolates. However, both ISSR-PCR and AFLP analyses gave indications of intraspecific groupings correlated with geographical origin and relative genetic diversity among some isolates, but no obvious association with Sunn Pest hosts. There was no obvious genotypic grouping of B. bassiana isolates from E. integriceps, perhaps suggesting the overwintering populations were infected by generalist native isolates rather than by host-specific ones that might be more suitable for biocontrol purposes.
We present the results of a high-resolution Chandra X-ray image of the Wolf-Rayet binary system WR 147, which consists of a WN8 star and an early-type companion located 0″.6 to its north. The image provides the first direct evidence for spatially extended X-ray emission in an early-type binary system, and shows that the emission peaks north of the WN8 star and close to the position of the radio bow shock. Simulated X-ray images of the wind-wind collision have a fwhm consistent with the data, but cannot account for the full spatial extension, unless emission from the stars is also included.
Key features of reproductive behavior in China vary systematically through space and time. In this article we present an analysis of fertility change in regional space, using a 1% household sample from China’s 1990 population census. Elsewhere,we use the same data to analyze reproductive strategizing, but here we pursue the big picture with a straightforward analysis that takes reported births as an uncomplicated indicator of fertility.The article has three objectives: first, to introduce a novel, multilevel spatial model of regional structure constructed using a geographic information system (GIS); second, to demonstrate the potential for longitudinal data derived from onetime censuses to contribute to historical demography in conjunction with regional analysis; and third, to document the manner in which China’s fertility transition has unfolded in regional space.