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We evaluated environmental contamination by carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB), the effectiveness of cleaning practices, the performance of aerosolized hydrogen-peroxide (aHP) technology, and the correlation between measures of cleaning and environmental contamination.
Serial testing of environmental contamination during a 7-month period.
Single-patient rooms in intensive care units (ICUs) and multipatient step-up and regular rooms in internal medicine wards in a tertiary-care hospital with endemic CRAB.
CRAB environmental contamination was determined semiquantitatively using sponge sampling.
In step-up rooms, 91% of patient units (56% of objects) were contaminated, and half of them were heavily contaminated. In regular rooms, only 21% of patient units (3% of objects) were contaminated. In ICUs, 76% of single-patient rooms (24% of objects) were contaminated. Cleaning did not reduce the number of contaminated objects or patient units in step-up rooms. After refresher training, cleaning reduced the proportion of contaminated objects by 2-fold (P = .001), but almost all patient units remained contaminated. Using aerosolized hydrogen peroxide (aHP) disinfection after discharge of a known CRAB-carrier decreased room contamination by 78%, similar to the reduction achieved by manual hypochloride cleaning. Measuring cleaning efficacy using fluorescent gel did not correlate with recovery of CRAB by sponge cultures.
In step-up rooms, the high number of objects contaminated combined with poor efficacy of cleaning resulted in failure to eliminate CRAB in patient units. Fluorescent gel is a poor detector of CRAB contamination. The role of aHP is still unclear. However, its use in multipatient rooms is limited because it can only be used in unoccupied rooms.
To compare the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and mortality of patients with bloodstream infections (BSI) caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) versus ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-KP) and to examine the differences in clinical characteristics and outcome between BSIs caused by isolates with CTX-M versus other ESBL genotypes
As part of the INCREMENT project, 33 tertiary hospitals in 12 countries retrospectively collected data on adult patients diagnosed with ESBL-EC BSI or ESBL-KP BSI between 2004 and 2013. Risk factors for ESBL-EC versus ESBL-KP BSI and for 30-day mortality were examined by bivariate analysis followed by multivariable logistic regression.
The study included 909 patients: 687 with ESBL-EC BSI and 222 with ESBL-KP BSI. ESBL genotype by polymerase chain reaction amplification of 286 isolates was available. ESBL-KP BSI was associated with intensive care unit admission, cardiovascular and neurological comorbidities, length of stay to bacteremia >14 days from admission, and a nonurinary source. Overall, 30-day mortality was significantly higher in patients with ESBL-KP BSI than ESBL-EC BSI (33.7% vs 17.4%; odds ratio, 1.64; P=.016). CTX-M was the most prevalent ESBL subtype identified (218 of 286 polymerase chain reaction-tested isolates, 76%). No differences in clinical characteristics or in mortality between CTX-M and non–CTX-M ESBLs were detected.
Clinical characteristics and risk of mortality differ significantly between ESBL-EC and ESBL-KP BSI. Therefore, all ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae should not be considered a homogeneous group. No differences in outcomes between genotypes were detected.
Carbapenemase-producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CP-CRE) are extremely drug-resistant pathogens. Screening of contacts of newly identified CP-CRE patients is an important step to limit further transmission. We aimed to determine the risk factors for CP-CRE acquisition among patients exposed to a CP-CRE index patient.
A matched case-control study was performed in a tertiary care hospital in Israel. The study population was comprised of patients who underwent rectal screening for CP-CRE following close contact with a newly identified CP-CRE index patient. Cases were defined as positive tests for CP-CRE. For each case patient, 2 matched controls were randomly selected from the pool of contacts who tested negative for CP-CRE following exposure to the same index case. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted using conditional logistic regression.
In total, 53 positive contacts were identified in 40 unique investigations (896 tests performed on 735 contacts) between October 6, 2008, and June 7, 2012. blaKPC was the only carbapenemase identified. In multivariate analysis, risk factors for CP-CRE acquisition among contacts were (1) contact with an index patient for ≥3 days (odds ratio [OR], 9.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.0–48.9), (2) mechanical ventilation (OR, 4.1; 95% CI, 1.4–11.9), and (3) carriage or infection with another multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO; OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.0–7.1). Among patients who received antibiotics, cephalosporins were associated with a lower risk of acquisition.
Patient characteristics (ventilation and carriage of another MDRO) as well as duration of contact are risk factors for CP-CRE acquisition among contacts. The role of cephalosporins requires further study.
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are important extremely drug-resistant pathogens that have emerged during the past decade. Early identification and isolation of carriers are key components of an effective infection control strategy in healthcare facilities. Very little is known about the natural history of CRE carriage. We aimed to determine the predictors of a positive CRE rectal screen test among patients with known CRE carriage screened at their next hospital encounter.
A case-control study was conducted. Sixty-six patients who tested positive for CRE carriage were surveyed for CRE rectal carriage at the next hospital encounter; screen-positive patients were compared with screen-negative control patients. Data were extracted from the patients' medical records and from the hospital computerized database.
Twenty-three case patients and 43 control patients were identified. Predictors for a positive CRE rectal carriage test were (1) prior fluoroquinolone use (odds ratio [OR], 4.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10–16.6), (2) admission from an institution or another hospital (OR, 4.04; 95% CI, 1.33–12.37), and (3) time interval less than or equal to 3 months since the first positive CRE test (OR, 3.59; 95% CI, 1.24–10.37). Among patients with no predictor variables, the likelihood of having a positive screen test at the next hospital encounter was 1/7. If they had at least 1 predictor, the likelihood increased to 1/2.
Prior fluoroquinolone use, transfer from another healthcare facility, and admission less than or equal to 3 months since the first CRE isolation are predictors of persistent CRE rectal carriage. These predictors can be used in designing CRE prevention strategies.
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