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A conversion process for the imitation of human dual-arm motion by a humanoid robot is presented. The conversion process consists of an imitation algorithm and an algorithm for generating human-like motion of the humanoid. The desired motions in Cartesian and joint spaces, obtained from the imitation algorithm, are used to generate the human-like motion of the humanoid. The proposed conversion process improves existing techniques and is developed with the aim to enable imitating of human motion with a humanoid robot, to perform a task with and/or without contact between hands and equipment. A comparative analysis shows that our algorithm, which takes into account the situation of marker frames and the position of joint frames, ensures more precise imitation than previously proposed methods. The results of our conversion algorithm are tested on the robot ROMEO through a complex “open/close drawer” task.
The questions when and why one needs to use mathematical models, and especially the models of dynamics, represent still an unresolved issue. A general answer would be that dynamic modelling is needed as a tool when designing structure of the system and its control unit. In this case we talk about simulation. The other application is in on-line control of the system – the so-called dynamic control. While in simulation one generally uses the best available model, the control can be based on a reduced dynamics, depending on a particular task. The aim of this paper was to highlight the problems important for the dynamics of humanoids and their dynamic environment.
discusses some practical problems of contact dynamics. Modelling the dynamics
of contact tasks is carried out in a completely general
way. Two dynamic systems, active robot system and passive environment
system are brought into contact and the relevant dynamics are
analyzed. The effects are: rigid-body contact force, elastodynamics in contact
zone, friction in contact points, etc. Simultaneous stabilization of contact
force and position is obtained using New Dynamic Position/Force Control.
The general model is then applied to some more concrete
problems and the simulation results are presented.
This paper deals with the problems of the education of the staff in robotics and flexible automation at the secondary school level. It deals with an experiment which aims at training technicians for robotics and flexible manufacturing systems. The experiment began in 1989. and now the second generation of students that studies according to the curricula of this experiment has completed the education. Previous experience, especially from the standpoint of the result of the students and problems that arise during the realization of the experiment, are analyzed in this text.
This paper discusses the problem of impact with robotic systems. The original method for the solution of impact is presented. The main idea is the replacement of impact with a singularity and hence the approach is called the IVSA (Impact-Via-Singularity-Analysis) Method. This goal is achieved by considering the obstacle as a unilateral constraint and introducing the new set of generalized coordinates so as to incorporate the constraint in the dynamic model. Using the IVSA Method the impact is not described by algebraic equations but by a reduced set of differential equations resulting directly from the initial dynamic model. The integration of dynamic equations over the impact points is thus possible. A numerical example is presented.
The problem of the constrained motion of robot end-effector is discussed. The redundant robot is considered, redundancy being added in order to improve robot working characteristics. In the phase of free motion towards the constraint the errors of basic non-redundant configuration are corrected by means of redundancy. During the constrained motion redundancy plays the role either of active or passive compliance. Between these two phases, the collision with the constraint occurs, and the impact can be absorbed by using redundancy.
A new approach to redundant robots is presented. The problem of the multiple solutions of the inverse kinematic is solved by making a special distribution of robot external motions to the redundant number of joint motions. The distribution is made in such a way to separate the smooth transport motion from the relative motion which could be fast and have high acceleration.
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