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During the 30th Chinese Antarctic Expedition in 2013/14, the Chinese icebreaker RV Xuelong answered a rescue call from the Russian RV Akademik Shokalskiy. While assisting the repatriation of personnel from the Russian vessel to the Australian RV Aurora Australis, RV Xuelong itself became entrapped within the compacted ice in the Adélie Depression region. Analysis of MODIS and SAR imagery provides a detailed description of the regional sea-ice conditions which led to the 6 day long besetment of RV Xuelong. The remotely sensed imagery revealed four stages of sea-ice characteristics during the entrapment: the gathering, compaction, dispersion and calving stages. Four factors characterizing the local sea-ice conditions during late December 2013 and early January 2014 were identified: surface component of the coastal current; near-surface wind; ocean tides; and surface air temperature. This study demonstrates that shipping activity in ice-invested waters should be underpinned by general knowledge of the ice situation. In addition, during such activity high spatiotemporal resolution remotely sensed data should be acquired regularly to monitor local and regional sea-ice changes with a view to avoiding the besetment of vessels.
We summarize and discuss our recent works on the structure and evolution of low-mass W UMa-type contact binary stars. Three conclusions are given as followings: (1) The energy transfer is taken place in the radiative region of common envelope of W UMa systems; (2) The magnetic activity level of W UMa systems is weaker than that of non-contact binaries or rapid-rotating single stars; (3) The evolutionary outcome of W UMa systems might be the rapid-rotating single stars, and an average lifetime is derived to be about 7 Gyr for W UMa systems.
The properties of W UMa binary stars are studied based on the well-determined physical parameters of 132 W UMa systems. It is found that the energy transfer rate has a maximum value at q ~ 0.58. The relation between the energy transfer rate and the temperature deviation is also investigated, and the temperature of the secondary component is related to the energy transfer rate.
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