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The Eighth World Congress of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery (WCPCCS) will be held in Washington DC, USA, from Saturday, 26 August, 2023 to Friday, 1 September, 2023, inclusive. The Eighth World Congress of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery will be the largest and most comprehensive scientific meeting dedicated to paediatric and congenital cardiac care ever held. At the time of the writing of this manuscript, The Eighth World Congress of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery has 5,037 registered attendees (and rising) from 117 countries, a truly diverse and international faculty of over 925 individuals from 89 countries, over 2,000 individual abstracts and poster presenters from 101 countries, and a Best Abstract Competition featuring 153 oral abstracts from 34 countries. For information about the Eighth World Congress of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery, please visit the following website: [www.WCPCCS2023.org]. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the activities related to global health and advocacy that will occur at the Eighth World Congress of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery.
Acknowledging the need for urgent change, we wanted to take the opportunity to bring a common voice to the global community and issue the Washington DC WCPCCS Call to Action on Addressing the Global Burden of Pediatric and Congenital Heart Diseases. A copy of this Washington DC WCPCCS Call to Action is provided in the Appendix of this manuscript. This Washington DC WCPCCS Call to Action is an initiative aimed at increasing awareness of the global burden, promoting the development of sustainable care systems, and improving access to high quality and equitable healthcare for children with heart disease as well as adults with congenital heart disease worldwide.
Complex patients requiring operations on the left ventricular outflow tract, aortic valve, or thoracic aorta after previous repair of aortopathy constitute a challenging group, with limited information guiding decision-making. We aimed to use our institutional experience to highlight management challenges and describe surgical pearls to address them.
Forty-one complex patients with surgery on the left ventricular outflow tract, aortic valve, or aorta at Cleveland Clinic Children’s between 2016 and 2021 following previous repair of aortic pathology were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with known connective tissue disease or single ventricle circulation were excluded.
Median age at index procedure was 23 years (range 0.25–48) with median of 2 prior sternotomies. Previous aortic operations included subvalvular (n = 9), valvular (n = 6), supravalvular (n = 13), and multi-level surgeries (n = 13). Four deaths occurred in median follow-up of 2.5 years. Mean left ventricular outflow tract gradients improved significantly for patients with obstruction (34.9 ± 17.5 mmHg versus 12.6 ± 6.0 mmHg; p < 0.001). Technical pearls include the following: 1) liberal use of anterior aortoventriculoplasty with valve replacement; 2) primarily anterior aortoventriculoplasty following the subpulmonary conus in contrast to more vertical incision for post-arterial switch operation patients; 3) pre-operative imaging of mediastinum and peripheral vasculature for cannulation and sternal re-entry; and 4) proactive use of multi-site peripheral cannulation.
Operation to address the left ventricular outflow tract, aortic valve, or aorta following prior congenital aortic repair can be accomplished with excellent outcomes despite high complexity. These procedures commonly include multiple components, including concomitant valve interventions. Cannulation strategies and anterior aortoventriculoplasty in specific patients require modifications.
Since the introduction of percutaneous closure in the United States, rates of secundum atrial septal defect and patent foramen ovale closures have increased substantially. Whether or not closure rates are uniform or vary due to differences in regional practice patterns is unknown. We sought to investigate this by comparing regional rates of closure across Florida.
We identified all atrial septal defect closures from 2001 to 2006 in the Florida State Inpatient Database. Using small area analysis, zip codes were assigned to Hospital Referral Regions based on where patients were most likely to go for closure. We obtained population-normalised rates of overall, percutaneous, and surgical closure.
Of 1830 atrial septal defect and patent foramen ovale closures from 2001 to 2006, 751 were surgical and 1004 were percutaneous. The statewide closure rate was 1.91 per 100,000 people per year; regional rates varied 3.8-fold from 0.78 to 2.94 per 100,000 people per year. Percutaneous rates varied sevenfold from 0.25 to 1.75 per 100,000 people per year, while surgical rates varied 2.71-fold from 0.53 to 1.44 per 100,000 people per year.
Despite a consistent prevalence of atrial septal defects, and patent foramens ovale, rates of repair vary across regions, suggesting that closure is driven by provider practice patterns rather than patient pathology. Efforts should be directed towards increasing consensus regarding the appropriate, evidence-based indications for closure so as to avoid the costs and potential negative sequelae of over- or undertreatment.
A complication is an event or occurrence that is associated with a disease or a healthcare intervention, is a departure from the desired course of events, and may cause, or be associated with, suboptimal outcome. A complication does not necessarily represent a breech in the standard of care that constitutes medical negligence or medical malpractice. An operative or procedural complication is any complication, regardless of cause, occurring (1) within 30 days after surgery or intervention in or out of the hospital, or (2) after 30 days during the same hospitalization subsequent to the operation or intervention. Operative and procedural complications include both intraoperative/intraprocedural complications and postoperative/postprocedural complications in this time interval.
The MultiSocietal Database Committee for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease has set forth a comprehensive list of complications associated with the treatment of patients with congenital cardiac disease, related to cardiac, pulmonary, renal, haematological, infectious, neurological, gastrointestinal, and endocrinal systems, as well as those related to the management of anaesthesia and perfusion, and the transplantation of thoracic organs. The objective of this manuscript is to examine the definitions of operative morbidity as they relate specifically to the haematological system and to infectious complications. These specific definitions and terms will be used to track morbidity associated with surgical and transcatheter interventions and other forms of therapy in a common language across many separate databases.
The MultiSocietal Database Committee for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease has prepared and defined a near-exhaustive list of haematological and infectious complications. Within each subgroup, complications are presented in alphabetical order. Clinicians caring for patients with congenital cardiac disease will be able to use this list for databases, quality improvement initiatives, reporting of complications, and comparing strategies for treatment.
The introduction of the reporting of medical and surgical outcomes to the public and the potential implementation of initiatives involving pay-for-performance have invigorated debates about the relative benefits of administrative and clinical databases for comparing rates of mortality at the level of the hospital and surgeon. While general agreement exists that public performance report cards must use the highest quality data available, debate continues regarding whether administrative or clinical data should be utilized for this purpose. Clinical databases may contain information more relevant to risk-adjustment, but the currently available clinical databases are voluntary and suffer from validity concerns. Administrative data, however, suffer from inaccuracies of coding and a lack of potentially informative covariates. Particularly problematic to congenital heart surgery is the non-uniform application of coding algorithms to define complex reconstructive procedures for which there is no unique code assignment. The purposes of this manuscript are; therefore, to discuss the relative advantages and limitations of both clinical and administrative data, and to provide a brief introduction to currently available databases germane to the study of congenital cardiac disease.
We sought to use techniques of decision analysis to compare values or preferences for balloon angioplasty versus surgery for treatment of aortic coarctation in children.
Balloon angioplasty and surgery for aortic coarctation have a differing spectrum and prevalence of outcomes and complications, making direct comparison difficult.
From articles reporting treatment outcomes of native aortic coarctation from 1984 through 2005, we determined the baseline probabilities of successful treatment, complications, recoarctation and aneurysmal formation. Decision trees with baseline probabilities of these outcomes were formulated. Standard gamble interviews of medical professionals determined the preferences for the various outcomes. Final cumulative preference scores were further adjusted for both perceived mortality and procedural disutility. Sensitivity analyses determined threshold probabilities at which the score advantage changed.
Final preference scores for balloon angioplasty, with a mean of 0.8999, and standard deviation of 0.0236, were significantly higher than for surgery, at a mean of 0.8873, and standard deviation of 0.0246. The score advantage for balloon angioplasty did not change when adjusted for disutility, or mortality. Sensitivity analysis showed that even if the probability of periprocedural death or major complications for surgery was reduced to none, balloon angioplasty would still be preferred, expect for neonates, where if surgical mortality were reduced below 4%, then surgery would be preferred. Probabilities for periprocedural death or major complications associated with balloon angioplasty would have to exceed plausible thresholds before surgery would be preferred.
After accounting for preference-weighted probabilities of outcomes, balloon angioplasty is preferred over surgery for all plausible situations as the initial treatment for native aortic coarctation in children.
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