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COVID-19 lockdowns increased the risk of mental health problems, especially for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, despite its importance, little is known about the protective factors for ASD children during the lockdowns.
Based on the Shanghai Autism Early Developmental Cohort, 188 ASD children with two visits before and after the strict Omicron lockdown were included; 85 children were lockdown-free, while 52 and 51 children were under the longer and the shorter durations of strict lockdown, respectively. We tested the association of the lockdown group with the clinical improvement and also the modulation effects of parent/family-related factors on this association by linear regression/mixed-effect models. Within the social brain structures, we examined the voxel-wise interaction between the grey matter volume and the identified modulation effects.
Compared with the lockdown-free group, the ASD children experienced the longer duration of strict lockdown had less clinical improvement (β = 0.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.19–0.79], p = 0.001) and this difference was greatest for social cognition (2.62 [0.94–4.30], p = 0.002). We found that this association was modulated by parental agreeableness in a protective way (−0.11 [−0.17 to −0.05], p = 0.002). This protective effect was enhanced in the ASD children with larger grey matter volumes in the brain's mentalizing network, including the temporal pole, the medial superior frontal gyrus, and the superior temporal gyrus.
This longitudinal neuroimaging cohort study identified that the parental agreeableness interacting with the ASD children's social brain development reduced the negative impact on clinical symptoms during the strict lockdown.
AlN codoped ZnO films were deposited on sapphire substrates at low temperature using a cosputter system under various N2/(N2 + Ar) flow ratios. To investigate the nitrogen function, the ratio of nitrogen ambient was varied during cosputtering. AlN codoped ZnO films with various crystallographic structures and bonding configurations were measured. With an adequate nitrogen atmosphere deposition condition and postannealing temperature at 450 °C, the p-type conductive behaviors of AlN codoped ZnO films were achieved due to the formation of Zn–N bonds. According to the low-temperature photoluminescence spectra, the binding energy (EA) of 0.16 eV for N acceptors can be calculated. Using time-resolved photoluminescence measurement, the carrier lifetime in AlN codoped ZnO films increases due to the reduction of oxygen vacancies caused by the occupation of adequate nitrogen atoms.
We found out the promising catalyst materials(NiPd). The NiPd not only has the low melting point but also has the Pd enhancing the surface diffusion at low temperatures(<500'c ). With the Pd film thickness increasing, we could control the CNT density and synthesize more aligned and uniform CNTs. We also obtained the better electrical properties including lower turn-on field (3.4 V/um) and higher current density (34.3 mA/cm2) for NiPd as catalyst. For the advantages described above, we believe that the difficulty of low temperature on FED can be overcome. Further, the large area field emission display might be fabricated in the future.
To describe the epidemiology of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in a university hospital in Taipei, Taiwan.
Retrospective review over a 27-month period, from March 1996 to May 1998.
A tertiary-care teaching hospital in Taiwan.
Patients with VRE isolated from any body site.
Patients were identified through hospital microbiology and infection control records. Patient charts were reviewed for clinical and epidemiology data, including age, gender, previous hospital admissions, underlying diseases, types of infection, and recent antibiotic use. VRE isolates were characterized by their typical biochemical reactions, cellular fatty acid profiles, and the presence of van genes. Antibiotypes using the E-test and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) patterns of these isolates were used to determine the clonality.
Twenty-five isolates of VRE recovered from 12 patients were identified. One patient with a perianal abscess had 12 isolates of VRE (4 Enterococcus faecalis, 7 Enterococcus faecium, and 1 Enterococcus casseliflavus) recovered from perianal lesions. Among 3 patients who were hospitalized in the same room, 1 had a community-acquired cellulitis over the left leg caused by E faecalis, and the other 2 patients both had anal colonization with 2 isolates of E faecalis. The other 8 patients had 1 E faecalis isolate each from various clinical specimens. All isolates possessed vanA resistance phenotype and vanA genes. Different antibiotypes and RAPD patterns of the isolates from different patients excluded the possibility of nosocomial spread at the hospital.
Multiple species of VRE (E faecalis, E faecium, and E casseliflavus) and multiple clones of E faecium could colonize or infect hospitalized patients. In addition, clones of VRE can persist long-term in patients' lower gastrointestinal tracts. These results extend our knowledge of the coexistence and the persistence of multiple species and multiple clones of VRE in hospitalized patients.
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