The South Korean Twin Registry (SKTR) is an ongoing nation-wide volunteer registry of South Korean twins and their families, which was established in the year 2001 to understand genetic and environmental etiologies of psychological and physical traits among South Koreans. Recently, the SKTR sampling has been extended in two important ways. First, we began to recruit twins from lower socio-economic families to study interaction effects of gene by environmental context. Second, as a parallel study of the SKTR, the Nigerian Twin and Sibling Registry was developed to understand the origin of the population group differences/similarities in psychological traits between South Koreans and Nigerians. This article summarizes the main findings (based on the SKTR sample to date), recruitment procedures, zygosity assessment, measures, and future plans for the SKTR.