To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Approximately one-third of individuals in a major depressive episode will not achieve sustained remission despite multiple, well-delivered treatments. These patients experience prolonged suffering and disproportionately utilize mental and general health care resources. The recently proposed clinical heuristic of ‘difficult-to-treat depression’ (DTD) aims to broaden our understanding and focus attention on the identification, clinical management, treatment selection, and outcomes of such individuals. Clinical trial methodologies developed to detect short-term therapeutic effects in treatment-responsive populations may not be appropriate in DTD. This report reviews three essential challenges for clinical intervention research in DTD: (1) how to define and subtype this heterogeneous group of patients; (2) how, when, and by what methods to select, acquire, compile, and interpret clinically meaningful outcome metrics; and (3) how to choose among alternative clinical trial design options to promote causal inference and generalizability. The boundaries of DTD are uncertain, and an evidence-based taxonomy and reliable assessment tools are preconditions for clinical research and subtyping. Traditional outcome metrics in treatment-responsive depression may not apply to DTD, as they largely reflect the only short-term symptomatic change and do not incorporate durability of benefit, side effect burden, or sustained impact on quality of life or daily function. The trial methodology will also require modification as trials will likely be of longer duration to examine the sustained impact, raising complex issues regarding control group selection, blinding and its integrity, and concomitant treatments.
1. This Treaty hereby establishes a Secretariat to assist States Parties in the effective implementation of this Treaty. Pending the first meeting of the Conference of States Parties, a provisional Secretariat will be responsible for the administrative functions covered under this Treaty.
2. The Secretariat shall be adequately staffed. Staffshall have the necessary expertise to ensure that the Secretariat can effectively undertake the responsibilities described in paragraph 3.
3. The Secretariat shall be responsible to States Parties. Within a minimized structure, the Secretariat shall undertake the following responsibilities:
(a) Receive, make available and distribute the reports as mandated by this Treaty;
(b) Maintain and make available to States Parties the list of national points of contact;
(c) Facilitate the matching of offers of and requests for assistance for Treaty implementation and promote international cooperation as requested;
(d) Facilitate the work of the Conference of States Parties, including making arrangements and providing the necessary services for meetings under this Treaty; and
(e) Perform other duties as decided by the Conferences of States Parties.
This chapter examines the Secretariat created by the Arms Trade Treaty (ATT). A secretariat is the principle administrative organ of an international organization or treaty regime. As such, it combines aspects of a bureaucracy and an executive agency, but its essential role is to support the States Parties in coordinating the management of the Treaty in a continuous and stable fashion (Churchill and Ulfstein, 2000, p. 647). Importantly, secretariats are staffed by international civil servants, are not under the authority of any State government, and are meant to discharge limited and predefined tasks impartially without the intervention of politics (Bauer, 2006, p. 73).
Article 18(1) creates the ATT Secretariat. As the Conference of States Parties (CSP) is responsible for determining the tasks and the budget of the Secretariat (Art. 17(3)(e)), the creation of a provisional secretariat is required to attend to ‘administrative functions’ pending the first CSP. The first CSP must be held within one year of the entry into force of the ATT (Art. 17(1)).
Background: To describe preliminary results of a multi-center, randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled, pilot trial of shunt surgery in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). Methods: Five sites of the Adult Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network (AHCRN) randomized 18 patients scheduled for ventriculoperitoneal shunting based on CSF-drainage response. Patients were randomized to a Codman® Certas® Plus valve with SiphonGuard at either setting 4 (Active, N=9) or setting 8/”virtual off” (Placebo, N=9). Patients and assessors were blinded to the shunt setting. Outcomes included 10-meter gait velocity, cognitive function, and bladder activity scores. The prespecified primary analysis compared changes in 4-month gait velocity in the Active versus Placebo groups. Placebo-set shunts were then blindly adjusted to the active setting and all patients underwent 8 and 12-month post-surgical assessment. Results: At 4-months, gait velocity increased by 0.28±0.28m/s in the Active Group and 0.04±0.17m/s in the Placebo Group (p=0.071). Overactive Bladder (OAB-q) scores significantly improved in the Active versus Placebo groups (p=0.007). At 8 months, Placebo gait velocity increased by 0.36±0.27m/s and was comparable to the Active Group (0.40±0.20m/s; p=0.56). Conclusions: This AHCRN study shows a trend suggesting gait velocity improves more at an Active shunt setting than a Placebo shunt setting and demonstrates the feasibility of a placebo-controlled trial in iNPH.
To estimate prior severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection among skilled nursing facility (SNF) staff in the state of Georgia and to identify risk factors for seropositivity as of fall 2020.
Baseline survey and seroprevalence of the ongoing longitudinal Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) Prevention in Nursing Homes study.
The study included 14 SNFs in the state of Georgia.
In total, 792 SNF staff employed or contracted with participating SNFs were included in this study. The analysis included 749 participants with SARS-CoV-2 serostatus results who provided age, sex, and complete survey information.
We estimated unadjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for potential risk factors and SARS-CoV-2 serostatus. We estimated adjusted ORs using a logistic regression model including age, sex, community case rate, SNF resident infection rate, working at other facilities, and job role.
Staff working in high-infection SNFs were twice as likely (unadjusted OR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.45–3.00) to be seropositive as those in low-infection SNFs. Certified nursing assistants and nurses were 3 times more likely to be seropositive than administrative, pharmacy, or nonresident care staff: unadjusted OR, 2.93 (95% CI, 1.58–5.78) and unadjusted OR, 3.08 (95% CI, 1.66–6.07). Logistic regression yielded similar adjusted ORs.
Working at high-infection SNFs was a risk factor for SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity. Even after accounting for resident infections, certified nursing assistants and nurses had a 3-fold higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity than nonclinical staff. This knowledge can guide prioritized implementation of safer ways for caregivers to provide necessary care to SNF residents.
Neuropsychopharmacologic effects of long-term opioid therapy (LTOT) in the context of chronic pain may result in subjective anhedonia coupled with decreased attention to natural rewards. Yet, there are no known efficacious treatments for anhedonia and reward deficits associated with chronic opioid use. Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement (MORE), a novel behavioral intervention combining training in mindfulness with savoring of natural rewards, may hold promise for treating anhedonia in LTOT.
Veterans receiving LTOT (N = 63) for chronic pain were randomized to 8 weeks of MORE or a supportive group (SG) psychotherapy control. Before and after the 8-week treatment groups, we assessed the effects of MORE on the late positive potential (LPP) of the electroencephalogram and skin conductance level (SCL) during viewing and up-regulating responses (i.e. savoring) to natural reward cues. We then examined whether these neurophysiological effects were associated with reductions in subjective anhedonia by 4-month follow-up.
Patients treated with MORE demonstrated significantly increased LPP and SCL to natural reward cues and greater decreases in subjective anhedonia relative to those in the SG. The effect of MORE on reducing anhedonia was statistically mediated by increases in LPP response during savoring.
MORE enhances motivated attention to natural reward cues among chronic pain patients on LTOT, as evidenced by increased electrocortical and sympathetic nervous system responses. Given neurophysiological evidence of clinical target engagement, MORE may be an efficacious treatment for anhedonia among chronic opioid users, people with chronic pain, and those at risk for opioid use disorder.
To compare patients treated for incomplete Kawasaki disease whose practitioners followed versus did not follow American Heart Association criteria and to evaluate the association of cardiology consultation with adherence to these guidelines.
Single centre retrospective cohort study of patients <18 years old who received ≥1 dose of intravenous immunoglobulin for Kawasaki disease between 01/2006 and 01/2018. We collected demographics, clinical and laboratory data, coronary artery abnormalities, and cardiology consultation status. Patients treated for incomplete Kawasaki disease were divided into two groups based on adherence versus nonadherence to American Heart Association guidelines and compared by Wilcoxon rank sum test and chi-squared or Fisher’s exact test.
Of the 357 patients treated for Kawasaki disease, 109 (31%) were classified as incomplete Kawasaki disease. The American Heart Association algorithm for identifying patients with incomplete Kawasaki disease was followed in 81/109 (74%). Coronary artery abnormalities were present in 46/109 (42%) of the patients who were treated for incomplete Kawasaki disease. Cardiology consultation was more frequent in those fulfilling American Heart Association criteria for the diagnosis of incomplete Kawasaki disease versus those who did not fulfill criteria (76% versus 48%, p = 0.005).
Over 25% of patients treated for incomplete Kawasaki disease did not meet American Heart Association guidelines. Guidelines were more frequently followed when the paediatric cardiology team was consulted. Consulting physicians with experience and expertise in the evaluation and management of incomplete KD should be strongly considered in the care of these patients.
Studying phenotypic and genetic characteristics of age at onset (AAO) and polarity at onset (PAO) in bipolar disorder can provide new insights into disease pathology and facilitate the development of screening tools.
To examine the genetic architecture of AAO and PAO and their association with bipolar disorder disease characteristics.
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and polygenic score (PGS) analyses of AAO (n = 12 977) and PAO (n = 6773) were conducted in patients with bipolar disorder from 34 cohorts and a replication sample (n = 2237). The association of onset with disease characteristics was investigated in two of these cohorts.
Earlier AAO was associated with a higher probability of psychotic symptoms, suicidality, lower educational attainment, not living together and fewer episodes. Depressive onset correlated with suicidality and manic onset correlated with delusions and manic episodes. Systematic differences in AAO between cohorts and continents of origin were observed. This was also reflected in single-nucleotide variant-based heritability estimates, with higher heritabilities for stricter onset definitions. Increased PGS for autism spectrum disorder (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), major depression (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), schizophrenia (β = −0.39 years, s.e. = 0.08), and educational attainment (β = −0.31 years, s.e. = 0.08) were associated with an earlier AAO. The AAO GWAS identified one significant locus, but this finding did not replicate. Neither GWAS nor PGS analyses yielded significant associations with PAO.
AAO and PAO are associated with indicators of bipolar disorder severity. Individuals with an earlier onset show an increased polygenic liability for a broad spectrum of psychiatric traits. Systematic differences in AAO across cohorts, continents and phenotype definitions introduce significant heterogeneity, affecting analyses.
As practitioners of a historical science, paleontologists and geoscientists are well versed in the idea that the ability to understand and to anticipate the future relies upon our collective knowledge of the past. Despite this understanding, the fundamental role that the history of paleontology and the geosciences plays in shaping the structure and culture of our disciplines is seldom recognized and therefore not acted upon sufficiently. Here, we present a brief review of the history of paleontology and geology in Western countries, with a particular focus on North America since the 1800s. Western paleontology and geology are intertwined with systematic practices of exclusion, oppression, and erasure that arose from their direct participation in the extraction of geological and biological resources at the expense of Black, Indigenous, and People of Color (BIPOC). Our collective failure to acknowledge this history hinders our ability to address these issues meaningfully and systemically in present-day educational, academic, and professional settings. By discussing these issues and suggesting some ways forward, we intend to promote a deeper reflection upon our collective history and a broader conversation surrounding racism, colonialism, and exclusion within our scientific communities. Ultimately, it is necessary to listen to members of the communities most impacted by these issues to create actionable steps forward while holding ourselves accountable for the past.
The earliest stage in the innovation lifecycle, problem formulation, is crucial for setting direction in an innovation effort. When faced with an interesting problem, engineers commonly assume the approximate solution area and focus on ideating innovative solutions. However, in this project, NASA and their contracted partner, Accenture, collaboratively conducted problem discovery to ensure that solutioning efforts were focused on the right problems, for the right users, and addressing the most critical needs—in this case, exploring weather tolerant operations (WTO) to further urban air mobility (UAM) – known as UAM WTO. The project team leveraged generative, qualitative methods to understand the ecosystem, players, and where challenges in the industry are inhibiting development. The complexity of the problem area required that the team constantly observe and iterate on problem discovery, effectively “designing the design process.” This paper discusses the approach, methodologies, and selected results, including significant insights on the application of early-stage design methodologies to a complex, system-level problem.
Substantial progress has been made in the standardization of nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care. In 1936, Maude Abbott published her Atlas of Congenital Cardiac Disease, which was the first formal attempt to classify congenital heart disease. The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code (IPCCC) is now utilized worldwide and has most recently become the paediatric and congenital cardiac component of the Eleventh Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). The most recent publication of the IPCCC was in 2017. This manuscript provides an updated 2021 version of the IPCCC.
The International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease (ISNPCHD), in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO), developed the paediatric and congenital cardiac nomenclature that is now within the eleventh version of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). This unification of IPCCC and ICD-11 is the IPCCC ICD-11 Nomenclature and is the first time that the clinical nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care and the administrative nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care are harmonized. The resultant congenital cardiac component of ICD-11 was increased from 29 congenital cardiac codes in ICD-9 and 73 congenital cardiac codes in ICD-10 to 318 codes submitted by ISNPCHD through 2018 for incorporation into ICD-11. After these 318 terms were incorporated into ICD-11 in 2018, the WHO ICD-11 team added an additional 49 terms, some of which are acceptable legacy terms from ICD-10, while others provide greater granularity than the ISNPCHD thought was originally acceptable. Thus, the total number of paediatric and congenital cardiac terms in ICD-11 is 367. In this manuscript, we describe and review the terminology, hierarchy, and definitions of the IPCCC ICD-11 Nomenclature. This article, therefore, presents a global system of nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care that unifies clinical and administrative nomenclature.
The members of ISNPCHD realize that the nomenclature published in this manuscript will continue to evolve. The version of the IPCCC that was published in 2017 has evolved and changed, and it is now replaced by this 2021 version. In the future, ISNPCHD will again publish updated versions of IPCCC, as IPCCC continues to evolve.
Environmental DNA (eDNA) surveying has potential to become a powerful tool for sustainable parasite control. As trematode parasites require an intermediate snail host that is often aquatic or amphibious to fulfil their lifecycle, water-based eDNA analyses can be used to screen habitats for the presence of snail hosts and identify trematode infection risk areas. The aim of this study was to identify climatic and environmental factors associated with the detection of Galba truncatula eDNA. Fourteen potential G. truncatula habitats on two farms were surveyed over a 9-month period, with eDNA detected using a filter capture, extraction and PCR protocol with data analysed using a generalized estimation equation. The probability of detecting G. truncatula eDNA increased in habitats where snails were visually detected, as temperature increased, and as water pH decreased (P < 0.05). Rainfall was positively associated with eDNA detection in watercourse habitats on farm A, but negatively associated with eDNA detection in watercourse habitats on farm B (P < 0.001), which may be explained by differences in watercourse gradient. This study is the first to identify factors associated with trematode intermediate snail host eDNA detection. These factors should be considered in standardized protocols to evaluate the results of future eDNA surveys.
Naming difficulty is a common symptom of multiple age-related neurodegenerative disorders. As naming difficulty increases with age, valid, up-to-date naming assessment tools are crucial for differentiating between neurotypical changes in healthy aging and pathological naming difficulty. We aimed to develop and provide normative data for complementary auditory description naming and visual naming tests for older adults. Furthermore, these measures would include not only untimed accuracy, typically the sole naming performance measure, but also additional scores that incorporate features characteristic of actual word finding difficulty.
A normative sample of 407 healthy older adults, aged 56–100 years, were administered the Auditory Naming Test (ANT) and Visual Naming Test (VNT), and other standardized measures.
Item analyses resulted in 36 stimuli for both tests. Age-stratified, education-based normative data are provided for accuracy, response time, tip-of-the-tongue (i.e., delayed, yet accurate responses plus correct responses following phonemic cueing), and multiple Summary Scores. Internal and test–retest reliability coefficients were reasonable (.59–.84). Untimed accuracy scores were high across age groups, seemingly reflecting stability of naming into late adulthood; however, time- and cue-based scores revealed reduced efficiency in word retrieval with increasing age.
These complementary auditory and visual naming test for older adults improve upon the current standard by providing more sensitive performance measures and the addition of an auditory–verbal component for assessing naming. Detection of subtle naming changes in healthy aging holds promise for capturing symptomatic naming changes during the early stages of neurocognitive disorders involving expressive language, potentially assisting in earlier diagnoses and more timely treatment.
Archaeologists have long been called on to use geophysical techniques to locate unmarked graves in both archaeological and forensic contexts. Although these techniques—primarily ground-penetrating radar (GPR)—have demonstrated efficacy in this application, there are fewer examples of studies driven by Indigenous community needs. In North America, the location of ancestors and burial grounds is a priority for most Indigenous communities. We argue that when these Indigenous voices are equitably included in research design, the practice of remote sensing changes and more meaningful collaborations ensue. Drawing on Indigenous archaeology and heart-centered practices, we argue that remote-sensing survey methodologies, and the subsequent narratives produced, need to change. These approaches change both researchers’ and Indigenous communities’ relationships to the work and allow for the inclusion of Indigenous Knowledge (IK) in interpretation. In this article, we discuss this underexplored research trajectory, explain how it relates to modern GPR surveys for unmarked graves, and present the results from a survey conducted at the request of the Chipewyan Prairie First Nation. Although local in nature, we discuss potential benefits and challenges of Indigenous remote sensing collaborations, and we engage larger conversations happening in Indigenous communities around the ways these methods can contribute to reconciliation and decolonization.
Provision of good quality colostrum is essential for the passive immunity and nutrition of newborn calves. In order to better predict the quality of colostrum and the transfer of passive immunity, the relationships between colostrum components and between calf serum components were examined in this study. Samples of bulk tank milk, colostrum pooled from several cows 0–4 d postpartum, and colostrum collected from individual cows twice daily for 3 d post-partum were compared. With the exception of fat percentage, there were strong correlations between the levels of the components in the pooled colostrum and in the individual cow colostrum collected 0–1 d postpartum. The correlations between total solids as measured by Brix refractometry and total protein, immunoglobulin G (IgG), lactose % and protein % in colostrum within 1 d postpartum and pooled colostrum were 0.92, 0.90, −0.88 and 0.98, respectively. These high correlations enabled these colostrum components to be accurately predicted from Brix % and therefore, the volume of colostrum required to feed neonate calves can be optimised based on Brix refractometry to avoid failure of passive immunity transfer. To assess whether the components obtained from colostrum were correlated in calf blood, newborn calves were separated from their dams before suckling and blood sampled before feeding (day 0), and on days 1 and 7, after receiving colostrum or milk twice a day. The correlations between glucose, total protein, IgG, and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) levels in the calf blood were lower than the correlations observed between the colostrum components. The highest correlation was between serum protein measured by refractometer and serum IgG within one week postpartum. GGT activity was not a good indicator of serum IgG levels. However, serum protein refractometer measurements predicted serum IgG level with high accuracy, providing an on-farm test to determine that calves have received sufficient passive immunity and colostrum components.
Ecosystem modeling, a pillar of the systems ecology paradigm (SEP), addresses questions such as, how much carbon and nitrogen are cycled within ecological sites, landscapes, or indeed the earth system? Or how are human activities modifying these flows? Modeling, when coupled with field and laboratory studies, represents the essence of the SEP in that they embody accumulated knowledge and generate hypotheses to test understanding of ecosystem processes and behavior. Initially, ecosystem models were primarily used to improve our understanding about how biophysical aspects of ecosystems operate. However, current ecosystem models are widely used to make accurate predictions about how large-scale phenomena such as climate change and management practices impact ecosystem dynamics and assess potential effects of these changes on economic activity and policy making. In sum, ecosystem models embedded in the SEP remain our best mechanism to integrate diverse types of knowledge regarding how the earth system functions and to make quantitative predictions that can be confronted with observations of reality. Modeling efforts discussed are the Century ecosystem model, DayCent ecosystem model, Grassland Ecosystem Model ELM, food web models, Savanna model, agent-based and coupled systems modeling, and Bayesian modeling.