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While echocardiographic parameters are used to quantify ventricular function in infants with single ventricle physiology, there are few data comparing these to invasive measurements. This study correlates echocardiographic measures of diastolic function with ventricular end-diastolic pressure in infants with single ventricle physiology prior to superior cavopulmonary anastomosis.
Data from 173 patients enrolled in the Pediatric Heart Network Infant Single Ventricle enalapril trial were analysed. Those with mixed ventricular types (n = 17) and one outlier (end-diastolic pressure = 32 mmHg) were excluded from the analysis, leaving a total sample size of 155 patients. Echocardiographic measurements were correlated to end-diastolic pressure using Spearman’s test.
Median age at echocardiogram was 4.6 (range 2.5–7.4) months. Median ventricular end-diastolic pressure was 7 (range 3–19) mmHg. Median time difference between the echocardiogram and catheterisation was 0 days (range −35 to 59 days). Examining the entire cohort of 155 patients, no echocardiographic diastolic function variable correlated with ventricular end-diastolic pressure. When the analysis was limited to the 86 patients who had similar sedation for both studies, the systolic:diastolic duration ratio had a significant but weak negative correlation with end-diastolic pressure (r = −0.3, p = 0.004). The remaining echocardiographic variables did not correlate with ventricular end-diastolic pressure.
In this cohort of infants with single ventricle physiology prior to superior cavopulmonary anastomosis, most conventional echocardiographic measures of diastolic function did not correlate with ventricular end-diastolic pressure at cardiac catheterisation. These limitations should be factored into the interpretation of quantitative echo data in this patient population.
The pore structure of vapour deposited ASW is poorly understood, despite its importance to fundamental processes such as grain chemistry, cooling of star forming regions, and planet formation. We studied structural changes of vapour deposited D2O on intra-molecular to 30 nm length scales at temperatures ranging from 18 to 180 K and observed enhanced mobility from 100 to 150 K. An Arrhenius type model describes the loss of surface area and porosity with a common set of kinetic parameters. The low activation energy (428 K) is commensurate with van der Waals forces between nm-scale substructures in the ice. Our findings imply that water porosity will always change with time, even at low temperatures.
Calcium is considered important in buffering excess stomach acid in mammals, including horses. Control of stomach acid is important in preventing the development of ulcers within the stomach lining, which, in horses, are considered to be caused by acid splashing. Algae supplements contain various minerals which are in natural form, as seen in all plant and feedstuffs. The current trial was conducted to examine if a high calcium algae supplement had any impact on gastric ulceration in horses, which may be due to buffering stomach acid, reducing the pH in a gradual manner, without resorting to medication. Ten horses, of either thoroughbred, standardbred or sport horse breed, were selected on the basis of the presence of ulcers in their stomach, as ascertained by endoscopy. The average ulceration score before algae supplementation was 2.2 ± 0.75 according to the EGUC scoring system. The horses were then maintained on their normal diet (unchanged from the initial ulcer scoring) by the owner with the addition of 40 g per day of the high calcium, algae based Maxia Complete® (Seahorse Supplements Ltd, Christchurch, NZ) for thirty days (T30). All horses were then re endoscoped to assess any change in ulceration score. All horses showed a significant improvement in ulcer score, with seven having a score of zero (fully healed, no evidence of further ulceration) and two with a score of one (some residual inflammation or keratinosis in areas of healed ulcers). This resulted in a mean score of 0.3 ± 0.48 (P < 0.0001: T0 versus T30) at the end of the study. This trial demonstrated that feeding an organic form of high calcium from algae reduced ulceration in horses.
The first observations by a worldwide network of advanced interferometric gravitational wave detectors offer a unique opportunity for the astronomical community. At design sensitivity, these facilities will be able to detect coalescing binary neutron stars to distances approaching 400 Mpc, and neutron star–black hole systems to 1 Gpc. Both of these sources are associated with gamma-ray bursts which are known to emit across the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Gravitational wave detections provide the opportunity for ‘multi-messenger’ observations, combining gravitational wave with electromagnetic, cosmic ray, or neutrino observations. This review provides an overview of how Australian astronomical facilities and collaborations with the gravitational wave community can contribute to this new era of discovery, via contemporaneous follow-up observations from the radio to the optical and high energy. We discuss some of the frontier discoveries that will be made possible when this new window to the Universe is opened.
To determine if total lifetime physical activity (PA) is associated with better cognitive functioning with aging and if cerebrovascular function mediates this association. A sample of 226 (52.2% female) community dwelling middle-aged and older adults (66.5±6.4 years) in the Brain in Motion Study, completed the Lifetime Total Physical Activity Questionnaire and underwent neuropsychological and cerebrovascular blood flow testing. Multiple robust linear regressions were used to model the associations between lifetime PA and global cognition after adjusting for age, sex, North American Adult Reading Test results (i.e., an estimate of premorbid intellectual ability), maximal aerobic capacity, body mass index and interactions between age, sex, and lifetime PA. Mediation analysis assessed the effect of cerebrovascular measures on the association between lifetime PA and global cognition. Post hoc analyses assessed past year PA and current fitness levels relation to global cognition and cerebrovascular measures. Better global cognitive performance was associated with higher lifetime PA (p=.045), recreational PA (p=.021), and vigorous intensity PA (p=.004), PA between the ages of 0 and 20 years (p=.036), and between the ages of 21 and 35 years (p<.0001). Cerebrovascular measures did not mediate the association between PA and global cognition scores (p>.5), but partially mediated the relation between current fitness and global cognition. This study revealed significant associations between higher levels of PA (i.e., total lifetime, recreational, vigorous PA, and past year) and better cognitive function in later life. Current fitness levels relation to cognitive function may be partially mediated through current cerebrovascular function. (JINS, 2015, 21, 816–830)
Considerable research has documented that exposure to traumatic events has negative effects on physical and mental health. Much less research has examined the predictors of traumatic event exposure. Increased understanding of risk factors for exposure to traumatic events could be of considerable value in targeting preventive interventions and anticipating service needs.
General population surveys in 24 countries with a combined sample of 68 894 adult respondents across six continents assessed exposure to 29 traumatic event types. Differences in prevalence were examined with cross-tabulations. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to determine whether traumatic event types clustered into interpretable factors. Survival analysis was carried out to examine associations of sociodemographic characteristics and prior traumatic events with subsequent exposure.
Over 70% of respondents reported a traumatic event; 30.5% were exposed to four or more. Five types – witnessing death or serious injury, the unexpected death of a loved one, being mugged, being in a life-threatening automobile accident, and experiencing a life-threatening illness or injury – accounted for over half of all exposures. Exposure varied by country, sociodemographics and history of prior traumatic events. Being married was the most consistent protective factor. Exposure to interpersonal violence had the strongest associations with subsequent traumatic events.
Given the near ubiquity of exposure, limited resources may best be dedicated to those that are more likely to be further exposed such as victims of interpersonal violence. Identifying mechanisms that account for the associations of prior interpersonal violence with subsequent trauma is critical to develop interventions to prevent revictimization.
Amorphous solid water (ASW) is of great importance in astrochemistry as it has been detected in star forming regions, comets, and cold solar-system objects. A key property of ASW is its porous nature (with the extent of porosity reflecting the formation and growth conditions) and the subsequent pore collapse when the ice is heated. If interstellar ices are porous there are huge implications to both the process of planet formation and the budgets of molecular gas in the solid and gas phases. It is therefore vital to understand ASW porosity over astronomically relevant conditions in order to effectively model its potential effects on these processes.
Metal organic chemical vapor deposition, as well as material and basic device properties of nitride-based high electron mobility transistor structures on (111) silicon substrates varying in diameter from 4 to 8 inch were studied using in-situ and ex-situ characterization techniques. All substrates used for the growth of the nitride structures in this study were of SEMI standard thicknesses. The total thickness of the nitride structures was in the range of 1.5 – 5 µm. It is reported that nitride structures can be grown on 4, 6 and 8 inch diameter substrates with very similar post-growth wafer shape, material and device characteristics. It is also shown that their crystal quality, 2DEG transport properties and isolation blocking voltages can be improved by increasing nitride structure thickness while maintaining post-growth wafer bow and warp less than 50 µm. The maximum thickness of nitride structures that can be successfully grown on 8 inch diameter SEMI standard substrates seems to be limited to about 4.5 µm due to plastic deformation of Si. Blocking voltages of more than 700 V were achieved using 4.5 µm thick nitride-based high electron mobility transistor structures grown on 8 inch Si substrate.
The Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz (MALT90) survey aims to characterise the physical and chemical evolution of high-mass star-forming clumps. Exploiting the unique broad frequency range and on-the-fly mapping capabilities of the Australia Telescope National Facility Mopra 22 m single-dish telescope1, MALT90 has obtained 3′ × 3′ maps towards ~2 000 dense molecular clumps identified in the ATLASGAL 870 μm Galactic plane survey. The clumps were selected to host the early stages of high-mass star formation and to span the complete range in their evolutionary states (from prestellar, to protostellar, and on to
regions and photodissociation regions). Because MALT90 mapped 16 lines simultaneously with excellent spatial (38 arcsec) and spectral (0.11 km s−1) resolution, the data reveal a wealth of information about the clumps’ morphologies, chemistry, and kinematics. In this paper we outline the survey strategy, observing mode, data reduction procedure, and highlight some early science results. All MALT90 raw and processed data products are available to the community. With its unprecedented large sample of clumps, MALT90 is the largest survey of its type ever conducted and an excellent resource for identifying interesting candidates for high-resolution studies with ALMA.
Mid-infrared (MIR) quasar spectra exhibit a suite of emission features including high ionization coronal lines from the narrow line region (NLR) illuminated by the ionizing continuum, and hot dust features from grains, as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) features from star formation in the host galaxy. Few features are detected in most spectra because of typically low signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) data. By generating spectral composites in three different luminosity bins from over 180 Spitzer Ifnfrared Spectrograph (IRS) observations, we boost the S/N and reveal important features in the complex spectra. We detect high-ionization, forbidden emission lines in all templates, PAH features in all but the most luminous objects, and broad silicate and graphite features in emission whose strength increases relative to the continuum with luminosity. We find that the intrinsic quasar spectrum for all luminosity templates is consistent, and the differences in the spectra can be explained by host galaxy contamination in the lower luminosity templates. We also posit that star formation may be active in most quasar host galaxies, but the spectral features of star formation are only detectable if the quasar is faint.
We characterise the Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz Survey (MALT90) and the Mopra telescope at 90 GHz. We combine repeated position-switched observations of the source G300.968+01.145 with a map of the same source in order to estimate the pointing reliability of the position-switched observations and, by extension, the MALT90 survey; we estimate our pointing uncertainty to be 8 arcsec. We model the two strongest sources of systematic gain variability as functions of elevation and time-of-day and quantify the remaining absolute flux uncertainty. Corrections based on these two variables reduce the scatter in repeated observations from 12%–25% down to 10%–17%. We find no evidence for intrinsic source variability in G300.968+01.145. For certain applications, the corrections described herein will be integral for improving the absolute flux calibration of MALT90 maps and other observations using the Mopra telescope at 90 GHz.
A survey of the Milky Way disk and the Magellanic System at the wavelengths of the 21-cm atomic hydrogen (H i) line and three 18-cm lines of the OH molecule will be carried out with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. The survey will study the distribution of H i emission and absorption with unprecedented angular and velocity resolution, as well as molecular line thermal emission, absorption, and maser lines. The area to be covered includes the Galactic plane (|b| < 10°) at all declinations south of δ = +40°, spanning longitudes 167° through 360°to 79° at b = 0°, plus the entire area of the Magellanic Stream and Clouds, a total of 13 020 deg2. The brightness temperature sensitivity will be very good, typically σT≃ 1 K at resolution 30 arcsec and 1 km s−1. The survey has a wide spectrum of scientific goals, from studies of galaxy evolution to star formation, with particular contributions to understanding stellar wind kinematics, the thermal phases of the interstellar medium, the interaction between gas in the disk and halo, and the dynamical and thermal states of gas at various positions along the Magellanic Stream.
A heuristic greedy algorithm is developed for efficiently tiling spatially dense redshift surveys. In its first application to the Galaxy and MassAssembly (GAMA) redshift survey we find it rapidly improves the spatial uniformity of our data, and naturally corrects for any spatial bias introduced by the 2dF multi-object spectrograph. We make conservative predictions for the final state of the GAMA redshift survey after our final allocation of time, and can be confident that even if worse than typical weather affects our observations, all of our main survey requirements will be met.
Research was conducted to determine the efficacy of aminocyclopyrachlor in comparison to glyphosate, clopyralid, fluroxypyr, and triclopyr for silk tree (commonly known as mimosa) control. In the greenhouse, aminocyclopyrachlor was applied at 8.75, 17.5, 35, and 70 g ha−1 with and without methylated seed oil (MSO) at 0.5% v/v. Efficacy of these treatments was compared to glyphosate and triclopyr at 1,350 g ha−1, fluroxypyr at 103 g ha−1, and clopyralid at 100 g ha−1. Few differences in silk tree control were detected by 28 d after treatment (DAT), as aminocyclopyrachlor with MSO controlled silk tree 87 to 100% compared to 53 to 100% for aminocyclopyrachlor without MSO. Aminocyclopyrachlor at 35 g ha−1 provided silk tree control similar to glyphosate, triclopyr, clopyralid, and fluroxypyr regardless of adjuvant. Inclusion of MSO enhanced initial activity of aminocyclopyrachlor after application. At 7 DAT, 8.75 g ha−1 of aminocyclopyrachlor plus MSO controlled silk tree similar to aminocyclopyrachlor alone at 70 g ha−1. In laboratory studies, absorption of 14C-aminocyclopyrachlor 2 h after treatment (HAT) with MSO measured 93% compared to only 62% for 14C-aminocyclopyrachlor without MSO. By 24 HAT, absorption of 14C-aminocyclopyrachlor measured 99 and 71% for applications with and without MSO, respectively. Increased foliar absorption with MSO may explain enhanced activity observed 7 DAT in greenhouse studies, as no effects in 14C-aminocyclopyrachlor translocation due to adjuvant were observed. Responses suggest MSO increased the speed of silk tree control with aminocyclopyrachlor and may also improve rainfastness of aminocyclopyrachlor applications for control of silk tree and other woody species.
Parasites are increasingly recognized for their profound influences on individual, population and ecosystem health. We provide the first report of gastrointestinal parasites in gray wolves from the central and north coasts of British Columbia, Canada. Across 60 000 km2, wolf feces were collected from 34 packs in 2005–2008. At a smaller spatial scale (3300 km2), 8 packs were sampled in spring and autumn. Parasite eggs, larvae, and cysts were identified using standard flotation techniques and morphology. A subset of samples was analysed by PCR and sequencing to identify tapeworm eggs (n=9) and Giardia cysts (n=14). We detected ⩾14 parasite taxa in 1558 fecal samples. Sarcocystis sporocysts occurred most frequently in feces (43·7%), followed by taeniid eggs (23·9%), Diphyllobothrium eggs (9·1%), Giardia cysts (6·8%), Toxocara canis eggs (2·1%), and Cryptosporidium oocysts (1·7%). Other parasites occurred in ⩽1% of feces. Genetic analyses revealed Echinococcus canadensis strains G8 and G10, Taenia ovis krabbei, Diphyllobothrium nehonkaiense, and Giardia duodenalis assemblages A and B. Parasite prevalence differed between seasons and island/mainland sites. Patterns in parasite prevalence reflect seasonal and spatial resource use by wolves and wolf-salmon associations. These data provide a unique, extensive and solid baseline for monitoring parasite community structure in relation to environmental change.