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Four species of malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium knowlesi infect humans living in the Khanh Phu commune, Khanh Hoa Province, Vietnam. The latter species also infects wild macaque monkeys in this region. In order to understand the transmission dynamics of the three species, we attempted to detect gametocytes of the three species in the blood of infected individuals, and sporozoites in the salivary glands of mosquitoes from the same region. For the detection of gametocyte-specific mRNA, we targeted region 3 of pfg377, pvs25, pmg and pks25 as indicators of the presence of P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae and P. knowlesi gametocytes, respectively. Gametocyte-specific mRNA was present in 37, 61, 0 and 47% of people infected with P. falciparum (n = 95), P. vivax (n = 69), P. malariae (n = 6) or P. knowlesi (n = 32), respectively. We found that 70% of mosquitoes that had P. knowlesi in their salivary glands also carried human malaria parasites, suggesting that mosquitoes are infected with P. knowlesi from human infections.
A sound knowledge of equations and their use, derivation and clinical application is an absolute prerequisite for any anaesthetist. As a result, equations are a favourite question topic of examiners, particularly in the viva examinations. Many candidates answer these poorly, losing valuable marks and floundering when they face what they perceive as 'nightmare' questions. This book provides a simple, portable, reference guide to all the equations that candidates may be asked about during their examinations. The content is split into four sections: physics, pharmacology, physiology and statistics. Each equation is clearly explained, derived where necessary, and placed into a clinical context using a worked or clinically relevant example to demonstrate its use. Units and relevant terms are given and, where required, clear, concise diagrams have also been provided to simplify understanding. Written by anaesthetic trainees, this is an essential resource for preparation for the FRCA, EDA and other anaesthetic examinations.