The yellow-necked mouse, Apodemus flavicollis, can be considered as a model for genetic polymorphism produced by the frequent presence of supernumerary or B chromosomes (Bs). Host genetic background is rarely taken into account in studies of parasite sex ratio. The main aim of this study was to investigate the range of infrapopulation sex ratios for nematode parasites of the yellow-necked mouse and to determine which factors most influence variation in parasite sex ratios. Six nematode species found in the collected yellow-necked mice were analysed. We confirmed the predominant pattern of female-biased sex ratios in vertebrate parasite infrapopulations. The presence of B chromosomes in host genomes played an important role in infrapopulations of Heligmosomoides polygyrus, Syphacia stroma and Trichuris muris, as hosts with B chromosomes carried a higher proportion of males. The relative increase of males in infrapopulations could result from a shift in parasite life history strategy, induced by adaptation to the specific host genotypes (Bs present). In a meta-analysis with previously published data, the sex determination system was demonstrated to play a significant role in nematode sex ratio variation, as well as specific life history patterns, such as the place of egg hatching.