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Although obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is classified as an anxiety disorder in the DSM-IV, recent considerations for a reclassification into an obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders (OCSDs) cluster are gaining prominence. Similarities in symptomatology, course of illness, patient population, and neurocircuitry of OCD and OCSD are supported by comorbidity, family, and neurological studies, which also offer a critical re-evaluation of the relationship between OCD and anxiety disorders. This review examines potential classifications of OCD among the wider spectrum of affective disorders and at the interface between affective disorders and addiction. In addition, it has been suggested that the categorical diagnostic approach would be enhanced by an additional dimensional approach, including parameters such as stability of mood and ability to sustain attention. With further studies, it is ultimately the goal to define OCD and related disorders based on endophenotypes.
Despite efforts in this field, there are several fundamental unresolved issues, including the question of which disorders should be grouped together in this category and which characteristics to include as their shared common features. A reclassification of OCD among the OCSDs would allow for better scrutiny of distinct obsessive-compulsive symptoms, as currently this disorder often goes undetected in patients who complain of a broad symptom of anxiety. Advantages and disadvantages of establishing OCSDs and its implications for diagnosis, treatment, and research are discussed.
Over the last 25 years, the perception of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has changed; where once it was seen as a rare refractory disorder, it is now viewed as a fairly prevalent, but treatable, medical condition responding to two main therapeutic strategies–serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Given the emergence of new results with SRIs, more data on the role of augmentation strategies with second-generation antipsychotics, and recent genetic and neuroimaging findings with potential for advancing the understanding of the pathogenesis of OCD, it was thought appropriate to revisit OCD in order to identify key developments in this field and examine how they might be translated into the clinical arena. This consensus statement is the product of the International Anxiety Disorders Conference that took place in Cape Town in February 2006, and is referred to as the Cape Town Consensus (CTC).
In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) system, OCD has been classified as an anxiety disorder. However, in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) system, OCD is separated from these conditions. This is consistent with several findings. OCD can begin before puberty, whereas other anxiety disorders, particularly generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), have a later age of onset. OCD is similarly prevalent in men and women, as opposed to depressive and anxiety disorders, which are more common in women. Pharmacologic challenges in some (but not all) studies show exacerbation of symptoms to 5-HT receptor agonists (eg, mCPP, sumatriptan), but not to other anxiogenic challenges such as yohimbine, sodium lactate, caffeine, CO2, cholecystokinin, and pentagastrin, which are known to elicit anxiety symptoms in anxiety disorders.
Severe mania is life-threatening, carries an increased risk of suicide and has a serious impact on patients and their families. Efficient and rapid control of episodes of acute mania is needed.
To evaluate the safety and efficacy of risperidone monotherapy for acute mania.
In a 3-week, randomised, double-blind trial, 290 in-patients with bipolar l disorder with current manic or mixed episode and a baseline Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) score of 20 or more received flexible doses of risperidone (1–6 mg per day) or placebo.
Risperidone was received by 146 patients and placebo by 144. Their mean baselineYMRS score was 37. 2 (s. e. =0. 5). Significantly greater improvements were observed with risperidone than with placebo at weeks l and 2 and at end-point (total YMRS: P<0. 01). Extrapyramidal symptoms were the most frequently reported adverse events in the risperidone group.
In patients with severe manic symptoms, risperidone produced significant improvements in YMRS scores as early as week 1 and substantial changes at end-point. Treatment was well tolerated.
Clusters of phenomena were obtained by two clustering techniques, using the form and content of obsessions and compulsions. Significant clusters which emerged involved washing, checking, thoughts of past, and embarrassing behaviour. Depression occurred as a discrete cluster. Eighty-nine per cent of subjects could be fitted into at least one cluster; over half could be fitted into only one cluster. Washers and checkers made up more than half of the sample studied.