To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Suicide is a global public health issue, with behavior differing across genders, age groups, places, and sociopolitical settings. Emile Durkheim characterized anomic suicide as occurring when social standards fail, resulting in purposelessness and directionlessness. Young people who are experiencing social issues are in danger, even if they do not voice suicidal ideas. Prevention interventions should target these people by strengthening resilience, minimizing social dysregulation stress, and fostering the development of life skills, coping resources, and social support. Anomic suicide has important psychological and societal implications, emphasizing the importance of fostering social cohesion and assisting persons experiencing purposelessness or a lack of direction in life.
Drug-induced movement disorders (DIMDs) form an important subgroup of secondary movement disorders, which despite conferring a significant iatrogenic burden, tend to be under-recognized and inappropriately managed.
We aimed to look into phenomenology, predictors of reversibility, and its impact on the quality of life of DIMD patients.
We conducted the study in the Department of Neurology at a tertiary-care centre in India. The institutional ethics-committee approved the study. We assessed 55-consecutive DIMD patients at presentation to our movement disorder clinic. Subsequently, they followed up to evaluate improvement in severity-scales (UPDRS, UDRS, BARS, AIMS) and quality of life (EuroQol-5D-5L). Wilcoxan-signed-rank test compared the scales at presentation and follow-up. Binary-logistic-regrerssion revealed the independent predictors of reversibility.
Fourteen patients (25.45%) had acute-subacute DIMD and 41 (74.55%) had tardive DIMD. Tardive-DIMD occurred more commonly in the elderly (age 50.73±16.92 years, p<0.001). Drug-induced-Parkinsonism (DIP) was the most common MD, followed by tardivedyskinesia. Risperidone and levosulpiride were the commonest culprit drugs. Patients in both the groups showed a statistically significant response to drug-dose reduction /withdrawal based on follow-up assessment on clinical-rating-scales and quality of life scores (EQ-5D-5L). DIMD was reversible in 71.42% of acute-subacute DIMD and 24.40% of patients with chronic DIMD (p=0.001). Binary-logistic-regression analysis showed acute-subacute DIMDs and DIP as independent predictors of reversibility.
DIP is the commonest and often reversible drug-induced movement disorder. Levosulpiride is notorious for causing DIMD in the elderly, requiring strict pharmacovigilance.
Compulsive buying behavior or pathological buying is increasingly being recognized as a psychiatric disorder, and various psychosocial factors have been proposed to contribute to this problem. This study aimed to identify the association between compulsive buying behavior, stress, anxiety, depression, and impulsivity.
This cross-sectional, online survey used Google Forms to collect sociodemographic and clinical details of the participants between June 2021 and August 2021. In addition, they were evaluated on Pathological Buying Screener, Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale – 21 (DASS-21), and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale – Brief (BIS-Brief).
Out of 426 participants with valid responses, 169 (39.7%) qualified for pathological buying. The participant groups “with” and “without” pathological buying were comparable on sociodemographic characteristics, the preferred mode of shopping, and daily Internet use duration. Those “with” pathological buying scored significantly higher on DASS-21 and BIS-Brief. Both DASS-21 and BIS-Brief scores were predictors of pathological buying scores.
There is a significant association between pathological buying, psychological distress, and impulsivity.
Estimates of depression in suicidal behavior in South Asia would help to formulate suicide prevention strategies in the region that hasn't been assessed yet.
We aimed to systematically assess the prevalence of depression in fatal and non-fatal attempts of suicide in eight South Asian countries.
We searched Medline, Embase, and PsychINFO by specific search terms to identify articles assessing depression in fatal and non-fatal attempts of suicide in South Asian countries published between 2001 and 2020. Two separate meta-analyses were conducted for fatal and non-fatal attempts. Due to the high heterogeneity of studies (96–98%), random-effects models were used to calculate pooled prevalence rates.
A total of 38 studies was identified from five south Asian countries (India , Pakistan , Sri Lanka , Nepal , and Bangladesh ). The majority of studies (n = 27) were published after 2010. Twenty-two studies reported non-fatal attempts, and sixteen reported suicide. The prevalence of depression among non-fatal attempts ranged from 14% to 78% where the pooled prevalence rate was 32.7% [95% CI 26–39.3%]. The prevalence of depression among suicides ranged from 8% to 79% where the pooled prevalence estimate was 37.3% [95% CI 26.9–47.6%].
This review revealed the pooled prevalence of depression among fatal and non-fatal suicidal attempts in South Asian countries, which seems to be lower when comparedto the Western countries. However, a cautious interpretation is warranted due to the heterogeneity of study methods, sample size, and measurement of depression.
Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic psychiatric disorder that results in significant disability and substantial compromise in the quality of life. Until now, the role of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been primarily explored in individuals with treatment-resistant OCD. In this study, we investigated the safety and efficacy of rTMS as an early augmentation strategy in drug-free patients with OCD.
This is a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study that involved the administration of a total of 20 sessions of rTMS (active/sham) to drug-naïve OCD patients using a standard protocol (1-Hz; 20 trains [80 pulses/train]; 1600 pulses per session at 100% resting motor threshold) at supplementary motor area. All patients (active and sham) were started on escitalopram 10 mg/d, which was subsequently increased to 20 mg/d after 10 days.
Out of the 24 patients, 13 received active and 11 received sham rTMS. At the end of rTMS therapy, there was a substantial reduction (P = .001) in total Yale-Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale, obsessions (P = .030) and compulsions (P = .001) between the groups. Only few patients (N = 8) reported mild side effect with rTMS, local pain, and headache being the commonest. The study revealed large effect size (Cohen’s d = 1.6) of rTMS as an early augmentation strategy in drug-free patients of OCD.
rTMS is a safe and effective early augmentation strategy in the management of OCD. Larger randomized controlled trials are required to establish the therapeutic role of rTMS as early augmentation in OCD.
Early augmentation is a relatively newer concept in the management of psychiatric disorders. In managing psychiatric disorders, augmentation strategies are commonly used after failed attempts of optimization of a dose of the medications and then switching to another medication. Neuromodulation methods are recommended by traditional treatment recommendations as augmenting strategies (mostly) in managing treatment-resistant/refractory cases of psychiatric disorders. Late in the process of therapy, several of these techniques are applied to the patient. However, using different neuromodulation techniques, early augmentation of the ongoing pharmacological or psychological treatment may be achieved, resulting in early symptom reduction or remission and early return to work by resuming functionality. The length of the symptomatic cycle may be shortened by early augmentation. There are several potential challenges to adopting an early augmentation strategy in clinical practice. This article discusses the concept and evidence of early augmentation strategy in managing psychiatric disorder by using neuromodulation technique and potential challenges before it.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.