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Magnesium ions as well as calcium ions are required for successful fertilisation in sea urchins. In the absence of Mg2+ spermatozoa attached to the egg plasma membrane, their acrosomal processes passing through the vitelline envelope, but could not enter the egg cytoplasm (Sano et al, Dev. Growth Differ. 22, 531–41,1980). Such an individual spermatozoon was observed microscopically to resume entry into the egg immediately after the addition of a sufficient amount of Mg2+ to the surrounding medium. Neither any change in membrane potential nor an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration of the egg was observed after insemination in the absence of Mg2+, although both could be observed after the addition of Mg2+. The sperm heads did not show fluorescence when attached to the surface of an egg previously microinjected with mithramycin A in Mg-free seawater, indicating that there was no connection between the sperm and the egg. Therefore, occurrence of fertilisation potential must be a post-fusional event. These results suggest that Mg2+ are indispensable for fusion between the sperm acrosomal membrane and the egg plasma membrane.
Objectives: We evaluated the efficacy of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty for anastomotic stenosis after coronary arterial bypass grafting using the internal thoracic artery in patients with coronary arterial lesions due to Kawasaki disease. Subjects and Methods: From July 1997 to April 2000, four boys and one girl underwent percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty for 6 anastomotic lesions following coronary arterial bypass grafting using the left or right internal thoracic artery. Progressive severe stenosis of the grafts in the follow-up angiograms after grafting, and evidence of ischemia, were regarded as indications for percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. Age at coronary angioplasty ranged from 4.2 to 16.7 years, with a median of 6.9 years, while the interval from operation ranged from 0.3 to 3.0 years, with a median of 1.1 years. The diameter of the balloon catheter employed varied from 1.5 to 2.5 mm, and the pressure of inflation ranged from 8 to 16 atmospheres. Results: The degree of stenosis decreased from 63 to 99%, with a median of 88%, to 0 to 40%, with a median of 17% immediately after angioplasty. A follow-up angiogram either 3 months or 1 year later revealed no restenosis in any patient. Conclusion: Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty is a feasible and useful procedure for treating anastomotic stenosis following coronary arterial bypass grafting using the internal thoracic artery in patients with coronary arterial lesions due to Kawasaki disease.
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