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This study aimed to explore the impacts of COVID-19 outbreak on mental health status in general population in different affected areas in China.
This was a comparative study including two groups of participants: (1) general population in an online survey in Ya'an and Jingzhou cities during the COVID-19 outbreak from 10–20 February 2020; and (2) matching general population selected from the mental health survey in Ya'an in 2019 (from January to May 2019). General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), and Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) were used.
There were 1775 participants (Ya'an in 2019 and 2020: 537 respectively; Jingzhou in 2020: 701). Participants in Ya'an had a significantly higher rate of general health problems (GHQ scores ⩾3) in 2020 (14.7%) than in 2019 (5.2%) (p < 0.001). Compared with Ya'an (8.0%), participants in Jingzhou in 2020 had a significantly higher rate of anxiety (SAS scores ⩾50, 24.1%) (p < 0.001). Participants in Ya'an in 2020 had a significantly higher rate of depression (SDS scores ⩾53, 55.3%) than in Jingzhou (16.3%) (p < 0.001). The risk factors of anxiety symptoms included female, number of family members (⩾6 persons), and frequent outdoor activities. The risk factors of depression symptoms included participants in Ya'an and uptake self-protective measures.
The prevalence of psychological symptoms has increased sharply in general population during the COVID-19 outbreak. People in COVID-19 severely affected areas may have higher scores of GHQ and anxiety symptoms. Culture-specific and individual-based psychosocial interventions should be developed for those in need during the COVID-19 outbreak.
Through-silicon via (TSV) 3-D packaging and integration present many new opportunities and challenges for metals CMP applications. For front-side TSV polishing, challenges include the removal of large amounts of copper overburden, dishing control during copper clearing steps, and removal of large amounts of barrier metal and dielectric layers while still maintaining control over topography and defectivity. Additionally, the choice of barrier material can have significant impact on polishing in terms of the mechanical reliability regarding adhesion between the barrier metal and underlying dielectric layers. This paper will address many of these challenges with an emphasis on innovative technologies for superior process and endpoint controls, such as real-time profile control for thick copper films up to 6μm or more in thickness and automatic endpoint controls for barrier removal and dielectric stopping. The paper will also discuss some salient challenges for back-side TSV polishing, including the handling and polishing of bonded wafer pairs and strategies to minimize handling and polishing damage to the potentially fragile thinned device wafer. Additionally, the development of slurries with highly tunable copper-to-dielectric selectivity will be critical for enabling a wide range of final topographies, depending on requirements for subsequent bonding steps.
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