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Several recent reports have raised concern that infected co-workers may be an important source of SARS-CoV-2 acquisition by healthcare personnel. In a suspected outbreak among emergency department personnel, sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 confirmed transmission among co-workers. The suspected 6-person outbreak included 2 distinct transmission clusters and 1 unrelated infection.
Perceived discrimination is associated with worse mental health. Few studies have assessed whether perceived discrimination (i) is associated with the risk of psychotic disorders and (ii) contributes to an increased risk among minority ethnic groups relative to the ethnic majority.
We used data from the European Network of National Schizophrenia Networks Studying Gene-Environment Interactions Work Package 2, a population-based case−control study of incident psychotic disorders in 17 catchment sites across six countries. We calculated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the associations between perceived discrimination and psychosis using mixed-effects logistic regression models. We used stratified and mediation analyses to explore differences for minority ethnic groups.
Reporting any perceived experience of major discrimination (e.g. unfair treatment by police, not getting hired) was higher in cases than controls (41.8% v. 34.2%). Pervasive experiences of discrimination (≥3 types) were also higher in cases than controls (11.3% v. 5.5%). In fully adjusted models, the odds of psychosis were 1.20 (95% CI 0.91–1.59) for any discrimination and 1.79 (95% CI 1.19–1.59) for pervasive discrimination compared with no discrimination. In stratified analyses, the magnitude of association for pervasive experiences of discrimination appeared stronger for minority ethnic groups (OR = 1.73, 95% CI 1.12–2.68) than the ethnic majority (OR = 1.42, 95% CI 0.65–3.10). In exploratory mediation analysis, pervasive discrimination minimally explained excess risk among minority ethnic groups (5.1%).
Pervasive experiences of discrimination are associated with slightly increased odds of psychotic disorders and may minimally help explain excess risk for minority ethnic groups.
Psychosis rates are higher among some migrant groups. We hypothesized that psychosis in migrants is associated with cumulative social disadvantage during different phases of migration.
We used data from the EUropean Network of National Schizophrenia Networks studying Gene-Environment Interactions (EU-GEI) case–control study. We defined a set of three indicators of social disadvantage for each phase: pre-migration, migration and post-migration. We examined whether social disadvantage in the pre- and post-migration phases, migration adversities, and mismatch between achievements and expectations differed between first-generation migrants with first-episode psychosis and healthy first-generation migrants, and tested whether this accounted for differences in odds of psychosis in multivariable logistic regression models.
In total, 249 cases and 219 controls were assessed. Pre-migration (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.06–2.44, p = 0.027) and post-migration social disadvantages (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.02–3.51, p = 0.044), along with expectations/achievements mismatch (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.03–1.26, p = 0.014) were all significantly associated with psychosis. Migration adversities (OR 1.18, 95% CI 0.672–2.06, p = 0.568) were not significantly related to the outcome. Finally, we found a dose–response effect between the number of adversities across all phases and odds of psychosis (⩾6: OR 14.09, 95% CI 2.06–96.47, p = 0.007).
The cumulative effect of social disadvantages before, during and after migration was associated with increased odds of psychosis in migrants, independently of ethnicity or length of stay in the country of arrival. Public health initiatives that address the social disadvantages that many migrants face during the whole migration process and post-migration psychological support may reduce the excess of psychosis in migrants.
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a prevalent chronic condition with a large demand for treatment. This community outpatient study examined the effectiveness of a group intervention version of the established one-to-one cognitive therapy derived from the Clark and Wells model for SAD. Questionnaires were completed pre-treatment and post-treatment for SAD symptoms (Social Phobia Scale, Social Interaction Anxiety Scale), depressive symptoms (BDI-II), self-focused attention, safety behaviours (Social Phobia Weekly Summary Scale and Subtle Avoidance Frequency Examination), and impaired functioning (Work and Social Adjustment Scale). From an initial sample of 159 participants, 101 completed at least seven of the nine weekly group sessions (Mage = 34.1 years, SDage = 10.8 years, 53% female). Significant improvements were demonstrated on all measures. Large effect sizes were found for social anxiety symptoms and safety behaviour use. Self-focused attention, depressive symptoms, and impaired functioning had moderate effect sizes. Effect sizes for anxiety (d = 1.00 and 1.32) and mood measures (d = 0.71) were as high, or in some cases, higher than previous group treatment studies. Results suggest group cognitive therapy for SAD based on the Clark and Wells model is effective in a clinical setting for individuals with moderate/severe and treatment-resistant social anxiety.
As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic in the UK emerged and escalated, clinicians working in mental health in-patient facilities faced unique medical, psychiatric and staffing challenges in managing and containing the impact of the virus and, in the context of legislation, enforcing social distancing.
To describe (a) the steps taken by one mental health hospital to establish a COVID-19 isolation ward for adult psychiatric in-patients and (b) how staff addressed the challenges that emerged over the period March to June 2020.
A descriptive study detailing the processes involved in changing the role of the ward and the measures taken to address the various challenges that arose. Brief clinical cases of two patients are included for illustrative purposes.
We describe the achievements, lessons learned and outcomes of the process of repurposing a mental health triage ward into a COVID-19 isolation facility, including the impact on staff. Flexibility, rapid problem-solving and close teamwork were essential. Some of the changes made will be sustained on the ward in our primary role as a triage ward.
Although the challenges faced were difficult, the legacy they have left is that of a range of improvements in patient care and the working environment.
This is the first report on the association between trauma exposure and depression from the Advancing Understanding of RecOvery afteR traumA(AURORA) multisite longitudinal study of adverse post-traumatic neuropsychiatric sequelae (APNS) among participants seeking emergency department (ED) treatment in the aftermath of a traumatic life experience.
We focus on participants presenting at EDs after a motor vehicle collision (MVC), which characterizes most AURORA participants, and examine associations of participant socio-demographics and MVC characteristics with 8-week depression as mediated through peritraumatic symptoms and 2-week depression.
Eight-week depression prevalence was relatively high (27.8%) and associated with several MVC characteristics (being passenger v. driver; injuries to other people). Peritraumatic distress was associated with 2-week but not 8-week depression. Most of these associations held when controlling for peritraumatic symptoms and, to a lesser degree, depressive symptoms at 2-weeks post-trauma.
These observations, coupled with substantial variation in the relative strength of the mediating pathways across predictors, raises the possibility of diverse and potentially complex underlying biological and psychological processes that remain to be elucidated in more in-depth analyses of the rich and evolving AURORA database to find new targets for intervention and new tools for risk-based stratification following trauma exposure.
When COVID-19 spread to the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, it became clear that government responses including lockdowns, school closures and social distancing measures would have a significant impact on adolescent lives. A lack of basic services and restrictions on work meant the most vulnerable households struggled to meet basic needs such as food and healthcare. Limited mobility and increased intra-household violence were also a concern, especially for girls and young women. At a community level, limited social cohesion between refugees and host communities is fraying further.
Gender and Adolescence: Global Evidence (GAGE) is a longitudinal research project that began in 2015, looking at what works to enhance adolescent capabilities and empowerment across low-and middle-income countries, including three contexts in the MENA region (Jordan, Lebanon and the Gaza strip). The GAGE methodology includes in-depth interviews, focus groups and participatory research activities that are traditionally undertaken face to face; driven by the COVID-19 pandemic, a range of virtual qualitative methodological tools were introduced by researchers. This chapter reflects on the significance of an ‘ethic of care’ in research undertaken in crisis contexts, and the practical and ethical strengths this principle lent to digital storytelling and audio and written diaries.
Background: virtual methods and young people
The COVID-19 pandemic has generated exceptional circumstances for research in lower-and middle-income countries, with traditional face-to-face methods no longer viable nor ethically justifiable. Yet understanding the impact of the pandemic on young people in these contexts is essential for knowing how to target effective support. Innovative strategies have therefore been needed in order to be able to continue research with vulnerable young people. The growth and use of the internet by young people in the MENA region has been well documented (Gunter et al., 2016), as has the way that interaction with technologies such as smartphones, tablets and other devices shape young people's engagement with their physical and social surroundings (Ergler et al., 2016). Recognizing that these same virtual technologies can also be deployed to capture the contemporary lived experience in ways that may resonate with young people, a growing body of work explores the utility, ethical challenges and considerations around virtual and online qualitative methods (Ardoin et al., 2016; Ergler et al., 2016; Volpe, 2019).
Background: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are increasingly common in the United States and have the potential to spread widely across healthcare networks. Only a fraction of patients with CRE carriage (ie, infection or colonization) are identified by clinical cultures. Interventions to reduce CRE transmission can be explored with agent-based models (ABMs) comprised of unique agents (eg, patients) represented by a synthetic population or model-generated representation of the population. We used electronic health record data to determine CRE carriage risk, and we discuss how these results can inform CRE transmission parameters for hospitalized agents in a regional healthcare network ABM. Methods: We reviewed the laboratory data of patients admitted during July 1, 2016−June 30, 2017, to any of 7 short-term acute-care hospitals of a regional healthcare network in North Carolina (N = 118,022 admissions) to find clinically detected cases of CRE carriage. A case was defined as the first occurrence of Enterobacter spp, Escherichia coli, or Klebsiella spp resistant to any carbapenem isolated from a clinical specimen in an admitted patient. We used Poisson regression to estimate clinically detected CRE carriage risk according to variables common to data from both the electronic health records and the ABM synthetic population, including patient demographics, systemic antibiotic administration, intensive care unit stay, comorbidities, length of stay, and admitting hospital size. Results: We identified 58 (0.05%) cases of CRE carriage among all admissions. Among these cases, 30 (52%) were ≥65 years of age and 37 (64%) were female. During their admission, 47 cases (81%) were administered systemic antibiotics and 18 cases (31%) had an intensive care unit stay. Patients administered systemic antibiotics and those with an intensive care unit stay had CRE carriage risk 6.5 times (95% CI, 3.4–12.5) and 4.9 times (95% CI, 2.8–8.5) higher, respectively, than patients without these exposures (Fig. 1). Patients ≥50 years of age and those with a higher Elixhauser comorbidity index score and with longer length of stay also had increased CRE carriage risk. Conclusions: Among admissions in our dataset, CRE carriage risk was associated with systemic antibiotic exposure, intensive care unit stay, higher Elixhauser comorbidity index score, and longer length of stay. We will use these risk estimates in the ABM to inform agents’ CRE carriage status upon hospital admission and the CRE transmission parameters for short-term acute-care hospitals. We will explore CRE transmission interventions in the parameterized regional healthcare network ABM and assess the impact of CRE carriage underestimation.
Funding: This work was supported by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Cooperative Agreement number U01CK000527. The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed do not necessarily reflect the official position of CDC.
Background: A robust infection prevention infrastructure is critical for creating a safe resident environment in nursing homes. The CDC NHSN provides a standardized approach to infection surveillance and analysis, which can drive internal quality improvement efforts in nursing homes and could serve as an indicator of facilities’ infection prevention aptitude. The purpose of this study was to compare the characteristics of nursing homes enrolled to those not enrolled in the NHSN, including interfacility communication methods, as an essential part of reducing resident infection-related risks. Methods: Over a 2-year period, 50 nursing homes participated in a 12-month program designed to reduce healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) by enhancing relationships between nursing homes and hospitals. Overall, 11 demographic surveys were administered to nursing homes prior to the start of the phase 1 pilot year between January and March 2018, and another 39 were administered prior to beginning phase 2 in January–February 2019. The survey consisted of 36 questions on facility characteristics, including NHSN enrollment, infection prevention and control (IPC) program and infection preventionist characteristics, and communication methods related to interfacility transfer of care. We compared facility, IPC program characteristics, and communication methods between nursing homes stratified based on NHSN enrollment. These were compared using the Fisher exact test. Results: In total, 50 nursing homes, varying in size and services provided, completed the demographic survey (Table 1). Of these 50 nursing homes, 11 (22%) were enrolled in the NHSN. Nursing homes enrolled in the NHSN were more likely to use a telephone report prior to resident transfer in and out of the facility (P = .04) and to disseminate infection data to all facility nursing staff (P = .02). Overall, less than half of nursing homes included a telephone report as part of their routine hand-off communication, and most nursing homes relied only on written transfer forms or discharge documentation. Moreover, 65% of the nursing homes reported use of a standardized method to accept new residents with history of multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO), including a review of infection or MDRO type, antibiotic orders, and ambulation status. NHSN-enrolled nursing homes were also more likely to have an antibiotic stewardship program and to use the electronic health record (EHR) to facilitate infection surveillance, though these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions: A higher percentage of nursing homes enrolled in the NHSN engaged in activities connected with resident safety including verbal report prior to interfacility transfer and antimicrobial stewardship programs. Dedicating resources for nursing homes to enhance their IPC program including NHSN enrollment should be encouraged.
Funding: This study was supported by a grant from the AHRQ (grant no. RO1HS25451).
Few studies have derived data-driven dietary patterns in youth in the USA. This study examined data-driven dietary patterns and their associations with BMI measures in predominantly low-income, racial/ethnic minority US youth. Data were from baseline assessments of the four Childhood Obesity Prevention and Treatment Research (COPTR) Consortium trials: NET-Works (534 2–4-year-olds), GROW (610 3–5-year-olds), GOALS (241 7–11-year-olds) and IMPACT (360 10–13-year-olds). Weight and height were measured. Children/adult proxies completed three 24-h dietary recalls. Dietary patterns were derived for each site from twenty-four food/beverage groups using k-means cluster analysis. Multivariable linear regression models examined associations of dietary patterns with BMI and percentage of the 95th BMI percentile. Healthy (produce and whole grains) and Unhealthy (fried food, savoury snacks and desserts) patterns were found in NET-Works and GROW. GROW additionally had a dairy- and sugar-sweetened beverage-based pattern. GOALS had a similar Healthy pattern and a pattern resembling a traditional Mexican diet. Associations between dietary patterns and BMI were only observed in IMPACT. In IMPACT, youth in the Sandwich (cold cuts, refined grains, cheese and miscellaneous) compared with Mixed (whole grains and desserts) cluster had significantly higher BMI (β = 0·99 (95 % CI 0·01, 1·97)) and percentage of the 95th BMI percentile (β = 4·17 (95 % CI 0·11, 8·24)). Healthy and Unhealthy patterns were the most common dietary patterns in COPTR youth, but diets may differ according to age, race/ethnicity or geographic location. Public health messages focused on healthy dietary substitutions may help youth mimic a dietary pattern associated with lower BMI.
In Europe, the incidence of psychotic disorder is high in certain migrant and minority ethnic groups (hence: ‘minorities’). However, it is unknown how the incidence pattern for these groups varies within this continent. Our objective was to compare, across sites in France, Italy, Spain, the UK and the Netherlands, the incidence rates for minorities and the incidence rate ratios (IRRs, minorities v. the local reference population).
The European Network of National Schizophrenia Networks Studying Gene–Environment Interactions (EU-GEI) study was conducted between 2010 and 2015. We analyzed data on incident cases of non-organic psychosis (International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition, codes F20–F33) from 13 sites.
The standardized incidence rates for minorities, combined into one category, varied from 12.2 in Valencia to 82.5 per 100 000 in Paris. These rates were generally high at sites with high rates for the reference population, and low at sites with low rates for the reference population. IRRs for minorities (combined into one category) varied from 0.70 (95% CI 0.32–1.53) in Valencia to 2.47 (95% CI 1.66–3.69) in Paris (test for interaction: p = 0.031). At most sites, IRRs were higher for persons from non-Western countries than for those from Western countries, with the highest IRRs for individuals from sub-Saharan Africa (adjusted IRR = 3.23, 95% CI 2.66–3.93).
Incidence rates vary by region of origin, region of destination and their combination. This suggests that they are strongly influenced by the social context.
Professor Mark Ormrod is among the leading historians of the later Middle Ages in Britain. His contributions to the field are enormous: over his career he has published extensively and he has also fostered the field through the creation of funded projects that have brought previously hard-to-access archival resources into much wider public use, through the supervision of research students and through mentoring early career researchers. He has provided leadership at the highest level, both within his own institution, the University of York, and through his service to a number of national research councils and scholarly societies and, in particular, The National Archives.
Mark completed his doctorate in 1984 at the University of Oxford under the supervision of Professor James Campbell and then held a number of temporary and part-time positions at the Universities of Sheffield, Evansville (British Campus), and Queen's University Belfast before holding a British Academy Postdoctoral Research Fellowship at Cambridge from 1987–90. From there he moved to a lectureship at the University of York in 1990 and was promoted to full Professor in 1995. His experience of what is now widely known as ‘precarity’ in this early phase of his career always informed his later nurturing of graduate students and postdoctoral researchers, whose careers were always at the forefront of his mind in the creation of the many funded research projects that he so successfully established.
At York, Mark found a very happy home in both the Department of History and the interdisciplinary postgraduate Centre for Medieval Studies where his co-supervisors and co-teachers included Jeremy Goldberg, Jon Finch, Richard Marks, Nicola McDonald, Alastair Minnis, Linne Mooney, Sarah Rees Jones, Felicity Riddy and Craig Taylor. He was Director of the Centre for Medieval Studies 1998–2001 and 2002–3, and was Head of the Department of History in 2001 and 2003–7. He also struck up a very close working relationship with the Borthwick Institute for Archives, working with colleagues including Philippa Hoskin, Chris Webb and Gary Brannan. It was little surprise to his colleagues when he was appointed as the first Dean of the newly created Faculty of Arts and Humanities at York in 2009, a position that he held until his retirement in 2017.
The national priority to advance early detection and intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has not reduced the late age of ASD diagnosis in the US over several consecutive Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) surveillance cohorts, with traditionally under-served populations accessing diagnosis later still. In this review, we explore a potential perceptual barrier to this enterprise which views ASD in terms that are contradicted by current science, and which may have its origins in the current definition of the condition and in its historical associations. To address this perceptual barrier, we propose a re-definition of ASD in early brain development terms, with a view to revisit the world of opportunities afforded by current science to optimize children's outcomes despite the risks that they are born with. This view is presented here to counter outdated notions that potentially devastating disability is determined the moment a child is born, and that these burdens are inevitable, with opportunities for improvement being constrained to only alleviation of symptoms or limited improvements in adaptive skills. The impetus for this piece is the concern that such views of complex neurodevelopmental conditions, such as ASD, can become self-fulfilling science and policy, in ways that are diametrically opposed to what we currently know, and are learning every day, of how genetic risk becomes, or not, instantiated as lifetime disabilities.
This article draws upon six social research studies completed by members of the Dementia and Ageing Research Team at The University of Manchester and their associated networks over an eight-year period (2011–2019) with the aim of constructing a definition of ‘being in the moment’ and situating it within a continuum of moments that could be used to contextualise and frame the lived experience of dementia. Using the approach formulated by Pound et al. (2005) in synthesising qualitative studies, we identified this continuum of moments as comprising four sequential and interlinked steps: (a) ‘creating the moment’, defined as the processes and procedures necessary to enable being in the moment to take place – the time necessary for this to occur can range from fleeting to prolonged; (b) ‘being in the moment’, which refers to the multi-sensory processes involved in a personal or relational interaction and embodied engagement – being in the moment can be sustained through creativity and flow; (c) ‘ending the moment’, defined as when a specific moment is disengaged – this can be triggered by the person(s) involved consciously or subconsciously, or caused by a distraction in the environment or suchlike; and (d) ‘reliving the moment’, which refers to the opportunity for the experience(s) involved in ‘being in the moment’ to be later remembered and shared, however fragmentary, supported or full the recall.
On coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) wards, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleic acid was frequently detected on high-touch surfaces, floors, and socks inside patient rooms. Contamination of floors and shoes was common outside patient rooms on the COVID-19 wards but decreased after improvements in floor cleaning and disinfection were implemented.
Although several initiatives have produced core competency domains for training the translational science workforce, training resources to help clinical research professionals advance these skills reside primarily within local departments or institutions. The Development, Implementation, and AssessMent of Novel Training in Domain (DIAMOND) project was designed to make this training more readily and publicly available. DIAMOND includes a digital portal to catalog publicly available educational resources and an ePortfolio to document professional development. DIAMOND is a nationally crowdsourced, federated, online catalog providing a platform for practitioners to find and share training and assessment materials. Contributors can share their own educational materials using a simple intake form that creates an electronic record; the portal enables users to browse or search this catalog of digital records and access the resources. Since September 2018, the portal has been visited more than 5,700 times and received over 280 contributions from professionals. The portal facilitates opportunities to connect and collaborate regarding future applications of these resources. Consequently, growing the collection and increasing numbers of both contributors and users remains a priority. Results from a small subset of users indicated over half accomplished their purpose for visiting the site, while qualitative results showed that users identified several benefits and helpful features of the ePortfolio.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: To evaluate the FAITH! (Fostering African-American Improvement in Total Health) App mHealth lifestyle intervention by using post-intervention feedback obtained from participants in our intervention pilot study. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We used qualitative methods (focus groups) to elicit post-intervention feedback. Participants who completed the pilot study were recruited to one of two focus groups. Semi-structured focus groups were conducted to explore participants’ views on the app functionality, utility and satisfaction as well as its impact on healthy lifestyle change. Sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and qualitative data were analyzed by systematic text condensation thematic analysis. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Nine individuals participated (N = 4 and N = 5) in each of the two focus groups. Their mean age was 47.9 years (SD 12.1), 67% were women, and all had at least an education level of some college. Six overarching themes emerged from the data: (1) overall impression, (2) content usefulness (3) formatting, (4) implementation, (5) impact and (6) suggestions for improvement. Underpinning the themes was a high level of agreement that the intervention facilitated healthy behavioral change through cultural tailoring, multimedia education modules and social networking. Among the suggestions for improvement were streamlining of app self-monitoring features, personalization based on individual’s cardiovascular risk and attentiveness to nuanced cultural perspectives. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This formative evaluation found the FAITH! App mHealth lifestyle intervention had high reported satisfaction and impact on the health-promoting behaviors of African-Americans, thereby improving their overall cardiovascular health. The findings provide further support for the acceptability of mHealth interventions among African-Americans. CONFLICT OF INTEREST DESCRIPTION: None.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Innovations with positive health impact are a high priority for NCATS and CTSAs. Program design that uses the Causal Pathway approach incorporates performance indicators that assess impact. We applied Causal Pathway thinking to an ongoing national program to enhance the evaluation of program impact. We report Lessons Learned. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We conducted a day-long onsite workshop to introduce the model to the project team, build capacity, and map the existing program elements to Logic Models representing program Specific Aims. A local Causal Pathway (CP) champion was identified. Alignment of the Logic Models with the CP approach (input→activities→ outputs→effects/impact) developed iteratively through biweekly, then monthly conferral among stakeholders. Key tasks included distinguishing among activities, outputs, and effects (impacts), and identification of performance indicators for each stage of the Causal Pathway. Visualization tools and an additional late stage half-day workshop were used to foster consensus. Implementation of the CP model tested the feasibility of collecting specific indicators and prompted model revisions. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Program leadership and team members (n = 30) participated in the kick-off workshop. Four Specific Aims were mapped to Logic Models. Multiple Causal Pathway (CP) diagrams, one for each project in the program, were developed and mapped to Aims. Alignment of CP threads to Aims and identification of performance indicators required iteration. CP threads converged onto common final Impacts, sometimes crossing to another Aim. Performance indicators for operations were readily accessible to team members, and less so for impacts. Assumptions about program effects were subjected to specific indicators. Over time, Leadership noticed more expression of CP thinking in daily activities. New projects developed during this period incorporated the CP approach. Teams were able to streamline and simplify Logic/CP models. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Through capacity-building and mentored exercises, an innovation team was able to infuse CP thinking into the evaluation of their ongoing program. The CP approach to design and evaluation maps progress and indicators across the life of a program from initial activities to its ultimate impact.
The ‘jumping to conclusions’ (JTC) bias is associated with both psychosis and general cognition but their relationship is unclear. In this study, we set out to clarify the relationship between the JTC bias, IQ, psychosis and polygenic liability to schizophrenia and IQ.
A total of 817 first episode psychosis patients and 1294 population-based controls completed assessments of general intelligence (IQ), and JTC, and provided blood or saliva samples from which we extracted DNA and computed polygenic risk scores for IQ and schizophrenia.
The estimated proportion of the total effect of case/control differences on JTC mediated by IQ was 79%. Schizophrenia polygenic risk score was non-significantly associated with a higher number of beads drawn (B = 0.47, 95% CI −0.21 to 1.16, p = 0.17); whereas IQ PRS (B = 0.51, 95% CI 0.25–0.76, p < 0.001) significantly predicted the number of beads drawn, and was thus associated with reduced JTC bias. The JTC was more strongly associated with the higher level of psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) in controls, including after controlling for IQ (B = −1.7, 95% CI −2.8 to −0.5, p = 0.006), but did not relate to delusions in patients.
Our findings suggest that the JTC reasoning bias in psychosis might not be a specific cognitive deficit but rather a manifestation or consequence, of general cognitive impairment. Whereas, in the general population, the JTC bias is related to PLEs, independent of IQ. The work has the potential to inform interventions targeting cognitive biases in early psychosis.