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Mycobacterial infections are widely distributed in animals and cause considerable economic losses, especially in livestock animals. Bovine paratuberculosis and bovine tuberculosis, which are representative mycobacterial infections in cattle, are difficult to diagnose using current-generation diagnostics due to their relatively long incubation periods. Thus, alternative diagnostic tools are needed for the detection of mycobacterial infections in cattle. A biomarker is an indicator present in biological fluids that reflects the biological state of an individual during the progression of a specific disease. Therefore, biomarkers are considered a potential diagnostic tool for various diseases. Recently, the number of studies investigating biomarkers as tools for diagnosing mycobacterial infections has increased. In human medicine, many diagnostic biomarkers have been developed and applied in clinical practice. In veterinary medicine, however, many such developments are still in the early stages. In this review, we summarize the current progress in biomarker research related to the development of diagnostic biomarkers for mycobacterial infections in cattle.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of porcine follicular fluid (pFF) from large-sized (LFF; >8 mm in diameter) and medium-sized (MFF; 3–6 mm in diameter) follicles on the maturation and developmental competence of porcine oocytes. Cumulus–oocyte complexes (COCs) were collected from follicles 3–6 mm in diameter. The collected COCs were incubated for 22 h with LFF or MFF (in vitro maturation (IVM)-I stage) and were incubated subsequently for 22 h with LFF or MFF (IVM-II stage). Cumulus expansion was confirmed after the IVM-I stage and nuclear maturation was evaluated after the IVM-II stage. Intracellular glutathione (GSH) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were measured and embryonic development was evaluated. Relative cumulus expansion and GSH levels were higher in the LFF group compared with in the MFF group after the IVM-I stage (P < 0.05). After the IVM-II stage, the numbers of oocytes in metaphase-II were increased in the LFF group and GSH content was higher in all of the LFF treatment groups compared with in the MFF treatment groups during both IVM stages (P < 0.05). ROS levels were reduced by LFF treatment regardless of IVM stage (P < 0.05). Blastocyst formation and the total numbers of cells in blastocysts were increased in all LFF treatment groups compared with the control group (P < 0.05). These results suggested that pFF from large follicles at the IVM stage could improve nucleic and cytoplasmic maturation status and further embryonic development through reducing ROS levels and enhancing responsiveness to gonadotropins.
Calcium–magnesium–alumino-silicate (CMAS) particulates enter the aero-engine in a sandy environment, melt and infiltrate into 7 wt% yttria-stabilized zirconia (7YSZ) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), reducing their lifetime. This leads to chemical degradation in 7YSZ accompanied by tetragonal to monoclinic phase transformation upon cooling. In this work, electron-beam physical vapor deposition coatings were infiltrated with a synthetic CMAS. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements show that CMAS infiltration at 1250 °C has about 43% higher monoclinic phase volume fraction (PVF) at the coating surface compared to 1225 °C and remains consistently higher throughout the coating depth. Additionally, the increase in annealing time from 1 to 10 h results in a 31% higher monoclinic phase at the surface. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of globular monoclinic phases corresponding spatially with the above findings. These results resolve the impact of time and temperature on CMAS infiltration kinetics which is important for mitigation.
This work quantitatively analyses vessel traffic service (VTS) communications in ports and suggests improvements for more efficient control of the service. For this purpose, analysis of VTS communications was performed on VHF channel 12 in Busan North Port, South Korea. This communications service follows the queue of M/G/1 (the arrivals have a Poisson distribution, the service time is characterized by a general distribution, and with a single server). The degree of congestion of the communication channel was shown as the utilisation rate of the queue, which was 67·7% at peak times and 29·6% at non-peak times. To reduce congestion in the communication channel, we propose to separate the peak time control channel, exclude passing reporting, and decrease the reporting time. With separation of the peak time control channel, the utilisation rate decreased by 41·1%. The utilisation rate decreased by 5·7% when passing reporting was omitted, and by 8·3% when reporting time was reduced by 60%. The results of this study can be used as basic policy data to improve VTS, including reinforcement of the VTS officer's role and adjustment of the control report contents.
Even though South Korea’s universal health care system was established in 1989, many South Koreans continue to encounter obstacles in their attempts to access health care. Previous studies have not investigated the relationship between health care access and utilization and perceived health in the context of a universal health care system that implements a mandatory social health insurance policy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of health care access and use of preventive health care services on self-rated health among young and middle-aged adults in Korea. The sample consisted of 1242 young adults aged 20–39 years and 2389 middle-aged adults aged 40–64 years who had participated in the cross-sectional 2015 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, the association between health care access and use of preventive health care services and perceived poor health among young adults and middle-aged adults was assessed. The main finding was that a history of unmet health care requirements during the past 12 months was strongly associated with fair and poor self-rated health, especially among young adults. Additionally, middle-aged adults who had attended medical check-ups during the preceding 2 years reported poorer self-rated health. This study’s findings suggest that, despite South Korea’s universal public insurance system, there remains the need to improve access to health care services, especially among young adults. As a health improvement strategy, it is imperative that measures be taken to promote the availability of health care services when they are required and to solve any of the various individual accessibility problems, such as cost, particularly with young adults in mind.
Yarn-type supercapacitors should have high energy density in small given spaces, and the one attempt among many is to comprise the electrodes asymmetrically. However, the low capacitance of conventional materials causes the widened operating voltage useless. In this study, we have utilized a novel material MXene with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to make highly loaded MXene/CNT yarn electrodes, which exhibited a remarkable areal capacitance. With MnO2/CNT biscrolled cathode and PVA/LiCl gel electrolyte, the plied asymmetric yarn supercapacitor had energy density of 100 µWh/cm2. The yarn supercapacitor could operate under mechanical deformations without performance degradation.
Joonkoo Lee, Assistant Professor in the School of Business at Hanyang University, Seoul,
Sang-Hoon Lee, doctoral student in the School of Labor and Employment Relations at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,
Gwanho Park, construction supervisor at Korea Land and Housing Corporation, Jinju
South Korea has been known for its successful economic development in the post-World War II world economy. In 1960, the country's gross domestic production (GDP) per capita was just US$156, lower than Ghana's. However, it has rapidly grown since then, reaching $25,977 in 2013. In 1996, South Korea joined the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and become only the second Asian member of this rich countries’ club, after Japan. South Korea's economic development was mainly driven by exporting manufacturing goods. The country's exports rose from $122 million in 1960 to $703 billion in 2013, with manufacturing accounting for more than 80 per cent of the exports. It has become one of the ten largest trading economies in the world. The rapid expansion of exports was largely attributable to the constant upgrading of export product composition to higher value-added, more technologically sophisticated products, which coincided with upgrading the country's industry structure to focus on high-tech sectors, such as electronics and information technology (IT). In this regard, South Korea is an example of successful ‘economic upgrading’, defined as moving up to higher value-added activities with improved technology, knowledge and skills (Gereffi, 2005).
In explaining South Korea's economic growth, two opposite explanations have been presented. A market-based perspective highlights export-push strategies, openness to foreign investment and technology transfer as the key factors of the growth (World Bank, 1993). In contrast, state-centred views emphasize the key role of the state's active industrial policy in prodding local firms to upgrade and compete in global markets (Amsden, 1989; Chang, 1993; Evans, 1995). The debate following the economic crisis of the late 1990s centred on the development state was eclipsed by a ‘neoliberal turn’, or its strength was maintained with newly mandated roles (Chu, 2009; Kalinowski, 2008; Pirie, 2008). Missing in these explanations, however, is the role of global–local linkages in economic development (Hamilton and Gereffi, 2009). Economic development and industrial upgrading take place in a global economic context and through the interaction of global and local actors. Furthermore, just focusing on macro-economic settings or the role of the state fails to explain commonalities and differences in the patterns and trajectories of upgrading across different sectors and time periods.
People who eat alone, which is becoming a new trend owing to the increasing proportion of one-person households in Korea, are more likely to become overweight and obese. Therefore, we investigated the association between having a dinner companion and BMI.
A linear regression model adjusted for covariates was utilized to examine the association between having a dinner companion and BMI. Subgroup analyses were performed, stratified by age group, gender, household income, educational level and occupation.
We used the data from the Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey VI. Our primary independent variable was having a dinner companion while the dependent variable was BMI.
In total, 13303 individuals, aged 20 years or over, were analysed.
Compared with the solo eating group, BMI was lower in the family dinner group (β=−0·39, P<0·01) but not in the non-family dinner group (β=−0·06, P=0·67). The subgroup analysis revealed that the difference in BMI was most significant in young generations, such as those aged 20–29 years (β=−1·15, P<0·01) and 30–39 years (β=−0·78, P=0·01).
We found that people who eat dinner alone are more likely to become overweight and obese than those who eat with their family. This association was stronger in males and young adults than their counterparts. Considering the increasing trends in the proportion of single-person households and solo eating, appropriate intervention is needed.
Adequate facepiece fit of N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) is crucial for optimal protection against airborne pathogens. The quantitative fit test (QNFT) pass rates of the 4 N95 FFR models commonly used in Korea were below 50%. Male sex was identified as a single independent predictive factor for QNFT pass.
Spirituality is what gives people meaning and purpose in life, and it has been recognized as a critical factor in patients’ well-being, particularly at the ends of their lives. Studies have demonstrated relationships between spirituality and patient-reported outcomes such as quality of life and mental health. Although a number of studies have suggested that spiritual belief can be associated with mortality, the results are inconsistent. We aimed to determine whether spirituality was related to survival in advanced cancer inpatients in Korea.
For this multicenter study, we recruited adult advanced cancer inpatients who had been admitted to seven palliative care units with estimated survival of <3 months. We measured spirituality at admission using the Korean version of the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being (FACIT-sp), which comprises two subscales: meaning/peace and faith. We calculated a Kaplan-Meier curve for spirituality, dichotomized at the predefined cutoffs and medians for the total scale and each of the two subscales, and performed univariate regression with a Cox proportional hazard model.
We enrolled a total of 204 adults (mean age: 64.5 ± 13.0; 48.5% female) in the study. The most common primary cancer diagnoses were lung (21.6%), colorectal (18.6%), and liver/biliary tract (13.0%). Median survival was 19.5 days (95% confidence interval [CI95%]: 23.5, 30.6). Total FACIT-sp score was not related to survival time (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.981, CI95% = 0.957, 1.007), and neither were the scores for its two subscales, meaning/peace (HR = 0.969, CI95% = 0.932, 1.008) and faith (HR = 0.981, CI95% = 0.938, 1.026).
Significance of results
Spirituality was not related to survival in advanced cancer inpatients in Korea. Plausible mechanisms merit further investigation.
We investigated the extent of delays in the response time of emergency medical services (EMS) as an impact of mass casualty incidences (MCIs) in the same area.
We defined an MCI case as an event that resulted in 6 or more patients being transported by EMS, and prehospital response time as the time from the call to arrival at the scene. We matched patients before and after MCIs by dividing them into categories of 3 hours before, 0-1 hour after, 1-2 hours after, and 2-3 hours after the MCIs. We compared prehospital response times using multiple linear regression.
A total of 33,276 EMS-treated patients were matched. The prehospital response time for the category of 3 hours before the MCIs was 8.8 minutes (SD: 8.2), treated as the reference, whereas that for the category of 0-1 hour after the MCI was 11.3 minutes (P<0.01). The multiple linear regression analysis revealed that prehospital response time increased by 2.5 minutes (95% CI: 2.3-2.8) during the first hour and by 0.3 minutes (95% CI: 0.1-0.6) during the second hour after MCIs.
There were significant delays in the prehospital response time for emergency patients after MCIs, and it lasted for 2 hours as the spillover effect. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:94–100)
Allicin (AL) regulates the cellular redox, proliferation, viability, and cell cycle of different cells against extracellular-derived stress. This study investigated the effects of allicin treatment on porcine oocyte maturation and developmental competence. Porcine oocytes were cultured in medium supplemented with 0 (control), 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10 or 100 μM AL, respectively, during in vitro maturation (IVM). The rate of polar body emission was higher in the 0.1 AL-treated group (74.5% ± 2.3%) than in the control (68.0% ± 2.6%) (P < 0.1). After parthenogenetic activation, the rates of cleavage and blastocyst formation were significantly higher in the 0.1 AL-treated group than in the control (P < 0.05). The reactive oxygen species level at metaphase II did not significantly differ among all groups. In matured oocytes, the expression of both BAK and CASP3, and BIRC5 was significantly lower and higher, respectively, in the 0.1 AL-treated group than in the control. Similarly, the expression of BMP15 and CCNB1, and the activity of phospho-p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), significantly increased. These results indicate that supplementation of oocyte maturation medium with allicin during IVM improves the maturation of oocytes and the subsequent developmental competence of porcine oocytes.