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This chapter reviews the definitions and backgrounds of human trafficking and sex work, and their relationship with mental health and psychological well-being, and concludes with a discussion on the way forward. The trafficking is the exploitation of human beings by means of sexual exploitation, forms of forced labour, slavery, servitude, or the removal of human organs through threat or use of force, coercion, abduction, fraud, deception, abuse of positions of power or vulnerability. Trafficking into sex work is a profound human rights violation that demands effective and comprehensive international action. Issues related to trafficking and sex work are the biggest priorities of the current world in terms of health, including sexual and reproductive health and HIV prevention, and the promotion of human rights and gender equality. Mainstreaming mental health and psychological well-being is the key to addressing the devastating human rights violations of human trafficking and sex work.
Mental illness accounts directly for 14% of the global burden of disease and significantly more indirectly, and recent reports recognise the need to expand and improve mental health delivery on a global basis, especially in low and middle income countries. This text defines an approach to mental healthcare focused on the provision of evidence-based, cost-effective treatments, founded on the principles of sharing the best information about common problems and achieving international equity in coverage, options and outcomes. The coverage spans a diverse range of topics and defines five priority areas for the field. These embrace the domains of global advocacy, systems of development, research progress, capacity building, and monitoring. The book concludes by defining the steps to achieving equality of care globally. This is essential reading for policy makers, administrators, economists and mental health care professionals, and those from the allied professions of sociology, anthropology, international politics and foreign policy.
This chapter presents the Cuban integrative health/mental health system as a widely recognized model grounded in local community and primary care, within a national health system emphasizing free universal health care. Cuba's mental health system, offering community-based mental health care grounded in integrative primary care, incorporates the full spectrum of health promotion, problem prevention, curative treatments, rehabilitation, and social integration. The chapter draws on recent overviews and evaluations of Cuba's mental health systems of care, published research conducted by both Cuban and global sources, and Cuban practice accounts and experiences. Cuba's in-patient services include psychiatric hospitals housing both acute-care patients for short-term stays and longer-term patients, and local and regional general hospitals housing emergency and short-term care. One critical area in which Cuba's integrative health approach offers internationally recognized expertise is in minimizing adverse health/mental health impacts of disasters.