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Socioeconomic difficulties affect the cognitive and emotional development of children. However, the focus of prior studies has largely been on poverty and material hardship. This study expands on the existing literature by examining the impact of familial transient financial difficulties during infancy on long-term cognitive and behavioral outcomes.
The National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth (79) were used to assess the association between a transient drop in family income by 50% or more (called transient income decline or TID) during the first 3 years of life and later-life Peabody Individual Achievement Math and Reading scores and behavior problem index (BPI) scores (N = 8272–17 348; median assessment age = 9 years). A subsample of matched siblings (N = 2049–4238) was examined to tease out maternal and intra-familial effects.
Exposure to TID predicted increased total and externalizing BPI scores (std. coefficients of 0.10 and 0.09, respectively, p < 0.01) in the overall sample. Among matched siblings, exposure to TID predicted increased total, externalizing, and internalizing BPI scores (std. coefficients of 0.27, 0.25, and 0.23, respectively, p < 0.01).
Familial transient financial difficulties can have long-lasting behavioral effects for infants. The study identifies an early risk factor and at-risk children, thus providing insight into developing early intervention measures for infants to avoid long-term behavioral problems.
We report on healthcare worker use of a safe zone (outside a 3-foot perimeter around the patient’s bed) and personal protective equipment in 2 inpatient spinal cord injury/disorder units. Workers remained within the safe zone during 22% of observations but were less compliant with personal protective equipment inside the zone.
Evaluations of molecular mechanisms of dietary plants with their active molecules are essential for the complete exploration of their nutritive and therapeutic value. In the present study, we investigated the effect of chicory (Cichorium intybus) salad leaves in inhibiting protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), and evaluated their role in modulating the key markers involved in insulin cell signalling and adipogenesis using 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Bioactivity-directed purification studies enlightened the additive effects of chlorogenic acid (CGA) along with other caffeic acid derivatives present in methanolic extract of C. intybus (CME). Incubation of CME and CGA with 3T3-L1 adipocytes significantly enhanced the 2-deoxy-d-3[H]-glucose uptake and inhibited adipogenesis through altering the expressions of insulin signalling and adipogenesis markers. Extending to an in vivo model, the effect of CME was also investigated on insulin sensitivity in high-fat diet with low streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Supplementation of CME for 2 weeks reinstated the insulin sensitivity along with plasma metabolic profile. The present results demonstrate that the caffeoyl derivatives of chicory salad leaves show promising pharmacological effect on energy homoeostasis via PTP1B inhibition both in vitro and in vivo.
Clitoria ternatea is known for its antimicrobial activity but the antifungal effects of leaf extract on growth and morphogenesis of Aspergillus niger have not been observed. The extract showed a favorable antifungal activity against A. niger with a minimum inhibition concentration 0.8 mg/mL and minimum fungicidal concentration 1.6 mg/mL, respectively. The leaf extract exhibited considerable antifungal activity against filamentous fungi in a dose-dependent manner with 0.4 mg/mL IC50 value on hyphal growth of A. niger. The main changes observed under scanning electron microscopy after C. ternatea extract treatment were loss of cytoplasm in fungal hyphae and the hyphal wall and its diameter became markedly thinner, distorted, and resulted in cell wall disruption. In addition, conidiophore alterations were also observed when A. niger was treated with C. ternatea leaf extract.
Coupled quantum dots (CQDs) can provide a sensitive probe of the electric field within a device. With non-resonant excitation above the wetting layer (WL) energy, optical generation of an electric field within the CQD structure was observed. By alternating this non-resonant excitation the temporal response of the optically generated electric field was measured. Decay of this field was measured to be on the order of 110-140 μsec whereas the onset of the optically generated electric field was observed to be less than the temporal resolution of our experiment (7.5 μsec). This may provide a means for fast, non-contact, electric field modulation techniques.
Current semiconductor devices have been scaled to such dimensions that we need take an atomistic approach to understand their characteristics. The atomistic nature of these devices provides us with a tool to study the physics of very small ensembles of dopants right up to the limit of a single atom. Control and understanding of a dopants wavefunction and its coupling to the environment in a nanostructure could proof a key ingredient for device technology beyond-CMOS. Here, we will discuss the eigenlevels and transport characteristics a single gated As donor. The donor is incorporated in the channel of wrap-around gate transistors (FinFETs). The measured level spectrum is shown to consist of levels associated with the donors Coulomb potential, levels associated with a triangular well at the gate interface and hybridized combinations of the two. The level spectrum of this system can be well described by a NEMO-3D model, which is based on a numerical tight-binding approximation.
Interest in PVDF-TrFE copolymers as ferroelectric material for Memory application is driven by the prospect of having low cost, low operating voltage and fully organic device. Some previous studies reported FET designs using copolymers [refs 1,2] but none of these structures were fully integrated on silicon wafers and using a MOSFET fabrication process. We present for the first time the integration of a PVDF-TrFE (70%-30%) layer into a standard n-MOS transistor through a quasi-standard semiconductor technology. This allows us to achieve a Non Volatile Memory cell and at the same time to compact capacitor-transistor ferroelectric cell into a one-transistor memory cell.
We analyze spin wave-based logic circuits as a possible route to building reconfigurable magnetic circuits compatible with conventional electron-based devices. A distinctive feature of the spin wave logic circuits is that a bit of information is encoded into the phase of the spin wave. It makes possible to transmit information as a magnetization signal through magnetic waveguides without the use of an electric current. By exploiting sin wave superposition, a set of logic gates such as AND, OR, and Majority gate can be realized in one circuit. We present experimental data illustrating the performance of a three-terminal micrometer scale spin wave-based logic device fabricated on a silicon platform. The device operates in the GHz frequency range and at room temperature. The output power modulation is achieved via the control of the relative phases of two input spin wave signals. The obtained data shows the possibility of using spin waves for achieving logic functionality. The scalability of the spin wave-based logic devices is defined by the wavelength of the spin wave, which depends on the magnetic material and waveguide geometry. Potentially, a multifunctional spin wave logic gate can be scaled down to 0.1μm2. Another potential advantage of the spin wave-based logic circuitry is the ability to implement logic gates with fewer elements as compared to CMOS-based circuits in achieving same functionality. The shortcomings and disadvantages of the spin wave-based devices are also discussed.
We propose a new quantum cross structure (QCS) device as a candidate beyond CMOS. The QCS consists of two metal nano-ribbons having edge-to-edge configuration like crossed fins. The QCS has potential application in both switching devices and high-density memories by sandwiching a few molecules and atoms. The QCS can also have electrodes with different dimensional electron systems because we can change the widths, the lengths, and the heights of two metal nano-ribbons, respectively. Changing the dimensions of electron systems in both electrodes, we have calculated the current-voltage characteristics depending on the coupling constants between a molecule and the electrode. We find that the conductance peak is much sharper in case of weak coupling regardless of dimensions of electron systems in electrodes, compared to strong coupling case. We also find that the conductance peak of QCS having electrodes with two-dimensional electron systems (2DES) is much sharper than that of QCS having electrodes with three-dimensional electron systems (3DES) in case of strong coupling because of quantum size effect of 2DES. These results imply that the QCS with the very sharp conductance peak can serve as the devices to switch on and off by very small voltage change.
In this paper, we consider a thought problem intended to force consideration of fundamental limits for energy sources, sensors, computing elements, and communication systems as fundamental system dimensions are reduced to the few micron regime. Design of integrated systems at this level are shown to literally require the allocation of atoms for the various functions. We argue that although there are no fabrication technologies for systems on this scale and the tradeoffs between system functions are extreme, systems on this scale might be feasible; given end-of ITRS technologies.