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The United States is entering a new era of progressive state citizenship, with California leading the way. A growing number of states are providing expanded rights to undocumented immigrants that challenge conventional understandings of citizenship as binary, unidimensional, and exclusively national. In Citizenship Reimagined, Allan Colbern and S. Karthick Ramakrishnan develop a precise framework for understanding and measuring citizenship as expansive, multi-dimensional, and federated - broader than legal status and firmly grounded in the provision of rights. Placing today's immigration battles in historical context, they show that today's progressive state citizenship is not unprecedented: US states have been leaders in rights expansion since America's founding, including over the fight for black citizenship and women's suffrage. The book invites readers to rethink how American federalism relates to minority rights and how state laws regulating undocumented residents can coexist with federal exclusivity over immigration law.
Anaemia is a public health problem in Ghana. We sought to identify factors associated with haemoglobin concentration (Hb) and anaemia among school-attending adolescents. We analysed data from 2948 adolescent girls and 609 boys (10–19 years) selected from 115 schools from regions of Ghana as a secondary analysis of baseline surveys conducted at two time-points. We measured Hb, malaria from capillary blood, anthropometry and used a modified food frequency questionnaire to assess diet. Multivariable linear and Poisson regression models were used to identify predictors of Hb and anaemia. The prevalence of anaemia, malaria and geophagy were 24, 25, and 24 %, respectively, among girls and 13, 27 and 6 %, respectively, among boys. Girls engaging in geophagy had a 53 % higher adjusted prevalence of anaemia and 0⋅39 g/dl lower Hb. There were similar results among those who tested positive for malaria (+52 % anaemia; −0⋅42 g/dl Hb). Among girls, lower anaemia prevalence and higher Hb were associated with consumption of foods rich in haeme iron (−22 %; +0⋅18 g/dl), consumption of iron-fortified cereal/beverages consumed with citrus (−50 %; +0⋅37 g/dl) and being overweight (−22 %; +0⋅22 g/dl). Age was positively associated with anaemia among girls, but negatively associated among boys. Boys who tested positive for malaria had 0⋅31 g/dl lower Hb. Boys who were overweight or had obesity and consumed flour products were also more likely to be anaemic (119 and 56 %, respectively). Factors associated with Hb and anaemia may inform anaemia reduction interventions among school-going adolescents and suggest the need to tailor them uniquely for boys and girls.
This article explores the effect of explicitly racial and inflammatory speech by political elites on mass citizens in a societal context where equality norms are widespread and generally heeded yet a subset of citizens nonetheless possesses deeply ingrained racial prejudices. The authors argue that such speech should have an ‘emboldening effect’ among the prejudiced, particularly where it is not clearly and strongly condemned by other elite political actors. To test this argument, the study focuses on the case of the Trump campaign for president in the United States, and utilizes a survey experiment embedded within an online panel study. The results demonstrate that in the absence of prejudiced elite speech, prejudiced citizens constrain the expression of their prejudice. However, in the presence of prejudiced elite speech – particularly when it is tacitly condoned by other elites – the study finds that the prejudiced are emboldened to both express and act upon their prejudices.
Capillary rise of a liquid displacing gas is analysed for both open and closed capillaries. We include menisci mass and hysteresis, and show that oscillations due to inertia are muted by friction at the advancing meniscus. From single-phase numerical computations in a no-slip/slip capillary, we quantify losses due to entry, flow development, meniscus slip, exit and acceleration of fluid within the reservoir. For closed capillaries, determining viscous drag due to gas requires inclusion of compressibility, and solving a moving boundary problem. This solution is derived through perturbation expansion with respect to two different small parameters for obtaining pressure above the liquid meniscus. Our rise predictions spanning a large range of experimental conditions and fluids for both open and closed capillaries match the data. The experimental data confirm the adequacy of the theoretically constructed dimensionless groups for predicting oscillatory behaviour.
Our understanding of the politics of race, indigeneity, and ethnicity is informed not only by the work of scholars, but also by the work of leaders and practitioners, many of whom are pioneers in their respective fields. The Journal of Race, Ethnicity, and Politics (JREP) is proud to continue our Q&A series with Steve Phillips, founder of Democracy in Color, an organization focused on race and politics, and author of the New York Times and Washington Post bestselling book, Brown Is the New White: How the Demographic Revolution Has Created a New American Majority. Our hope is that forums like these will help advance our collective scholarship by better informing our research agendas, validating some of our claims, and building more bridges between the worlds of research, politics, and policy.
We study the motion of a buoyant or a nearly neutrally buoyant nano-sized spheroid in a fluid filled tube without or with an imposed pressure gradient (weak Poiseuille flow). The fluctuating hydrodynamics approach and the deterministic method are both employed. We ensure that the fluctuation–dissipation relation and the principle of thermal equipartition of energy are both satisfied. The major focus is on the effect of the confining boundary. Results for the velocity and the angular velocity autocorrelations (VACF and AVACF), the diffusivities and the drag and the lift forces as functions of the shape, the aspect ratio, the inclination angle and the proximity to the wall are presented. For the parameters considered, the boundary modifies the VACF and AVACF such that three distinct regimes are discernible – an initial exponential decay followed by an algebraic decay culminating in a second exponential decay. The first is due to the thermal noise, the algebraic regime is due both to the thermal noise and the hydrodynamic correlations, while the second exponential decay shows the effect of momentum reflection from the confining wall. Our predictions display excellent comparison with published results for the algebraic regime (the only regime for which earlier results exist). We also discuss the role of the off-diagonal elements of the mobility and the diffusivity tensors that enable the quantifications of the degree of lift and margination of the nanocarrier. Our study covers a range of parameters that are of wide applicability in nanotechnology, microrheology and in targeted drug delivery.
Our understanding of the politics of race, indigeneity, and ethnicity is informed not only by the work of scholars, but also by the work of leaders and practitioners. The Journal of Race, Ethnicity, and Politics (JREP) is proud to continue our Q&A series with Erik Stegman, executive director of Center for Native American Youth (CNAY) at the Aspen Institute. Our hope is that forums like these will help advance our collective scholarship by better informing our research agendas, validating some of our claims, and building more bridges between the worlds of research, politics, and policy.
Bats are known to be reservoirs of several medically important viruses including lyssaviruses. However, no systematic surveillance for bat rabies has been carried out in India, a canine rabies endemic country with a high burden of human rabies. Surveillance for rabies virus (RABV) infection in bats was therefore carried out in Nagaland, a north-eastern state in India at sites with intense human–bat interfaces during traditional bat harvests. Brain tissues and sera from bats were tested for evidence of infection due to RABV. Brain tissues were subjected to the fluorescent antibody test for detection of viral antigen and real-time reverse transcriptase PCR for presence of viral RNA. Bat sera were tested for the presence of rabies neutralizing antibodies by the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test. None of the bat brains tested (n = 164) were positive for viral antigen or viral RNA. However, rabies neutralizing antibodies were detected in 4/78 (5·1%) bat sera tested, suggesting prior exposure to RABV or related lyssaviruses. The serological evidence of lyssaviral infection in Indian bats may have important implications in disease transmission and rabies control measures, and warrant extensive bat surveillance to better define the prevalence of lyssaviral infection in bats.
Deciphering the relative importance of genetic and environmental factors, which play a major role in the prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC), can help clinicians with planning a long-term preventive treatment. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence and heritability of ECC among monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins in Chennai, India, in the year 2013. A cross-sectional study was designed to estimate the prevalence of ECC among twins. Zygosity classification for the survey framework was adapted from a highly accurate parental report questionnaire pertaining to the physical similarity between twins. The associated heritability index was estimated. The Decayed, Missing, Filled Surface (DMFS) Index was used as the diagnostic criterion for dental caries. The prevalence of ECC was estimated at 18.7%. The correlation coefficient between the twin pair showed significant correlation. The heritability index for ECC was estimated at 15% higher prevalence of ECC found among children in the age group 25–36 months. The heritability estimate indicated a relatively low genetic influence for early childhood caries among twins. There was no significant difference detected in the concordance rate for the MZ and DZ twins. Further research could be directed toward the prevalence of ECC among higher age group children to explore the role of genetic and environmental factors.
To develop and evaluate a Nutrition Transition-FFQ (NT-FFQ) to measure nutrition transition among adolescents in South India.
We developed an interviewer-administered NT-FFQ comprising a 125-item semi-quantitative FFQ and a twenty-seven-item eating behaviour survey. The reproducibility and validity of the NT-FFQ were assessed using Spearman correlations, intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC), and levels of agreement using Bland–Altman and cross-classification over 2 months (NT-FFQ1 and NT-FFQ2). Validity of foods was evaluated against three 24-h dietary recalls (24-HR). Face validity of eating behaviours was evaluated through semi-structured cognitive interviews. The reproducibility of eating behaviours was assessed using weighted kappa (κw) and cross-classification analyses.
A representative sample of 198 adolescents aged 14–18 years.
Reproducibility of NT-FFQ: Spearman correlations ranged from 0·33 (pulses) to 0·80 (red meat) and ICC from 0·05 (fruits) to 1·00 (tea). On average, concordance (agreement) was 60 % and discordance was 7 % for food groups. For eating behaviours, κw ranged from 0·24 (eating snacks while watching television) to 0·67 (eating lunch at home) with a mean of 0·40. Validity of NT-FFQ: Spearman correlations ranged from 0·11 (fried traditional foods) to 0·70 (tea) and ICC ranged from 0·02 (healthy global foods) to 1·00 (grains). The concordance and discordance were 48 % and 8 %, respectively. Bland–Altman plots showed acceptable agreement between NT-FFQ2 and 24-HR. The eating behaviours had acceptable face validity.
The NT-FFQ has good reproducibility and acceptable validity for food intake and eating behaviours. The NT-FFQ can quantify the nutrition transition among Indian adolescents.
This article presents a laboratory module developed for undergraduate micro/nano engineering laboratory courses in the mechanical engineering departments at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals. In this laboratory, students fabricate superoleophobic membranes by spray-coating of titania nanoparticles on steel meshes, characterize the surfaces and ability of the membrane to retain oil, and then use these membranes to separate an oil-water mixture. The laboratory module covers nanomaterials, nanomanufacturing, materials characterization, and understanding of the concepts of surface tension and hydrostatics, with oil-water separation as an application. The laboratory experiments are easy to set up based on commercially available tools and materials, which will facilitate implementation of this module in other educational institutions. The significance of oil-water separation in the petroleum industry and integration of concepts from fluid mechanics in the laboratory module will help to illustrate the relevance of nanotechnology to mechanical and materials engineering and its potential to address some of the future societal needs.
Our understanding of the politics of race, indigeneity, and ethnicity is informed not only by the work of scholars, but also by the work of leaders and practitioners, many of whom are pioneers in their respective fields. The Journal of Race, Ethnicity, and Politics (JREP) is proud to continue our Q&A series with Christine Chen, executive director of Asian and Pacific Islander American Vote (APIAVote). Our hope is that forums like these will help advance our collective scholarship by better informing our research agendas, validating some of our claims, and building more bridges between the worlds of research, politics, and policy.
To describe adolescents’ eating patterns of traditional, global/non-local and mixed foods, and the factors that may influence food consumption, access and preferences, in a globalizing city.
A representative sample of school-going adolescents completed a cross-sectional survey including an FFQ designed to identify traditional and global foods. Student’s t test and ordinal logistic regression were used to examine weekly food intake, including differences between boys and girls and between adolescents attending private and public schools.
Vijayapura city, Karnataka State, India.
Adolescents (n 399) aged 13–16 years.
Compared with dietary guidelines, adolescents consumed fruit, green leafy vegetables, non-green leafy vegetables and dairy less frequently than recommended and consumed energy-dense foods more frequently than recommended. Traditional but expensive foods (fruits, dairy, homemade sweets and added fat) were more frequently consumed by private-school students, generally from wealthier, more connected families, than by public-school students; the latter more frequently consumed both traditional (tea, coffee, eggs) and mixed foods (snack and street foods; P≤0·05). Girls reported more frequent consumption of global/non-local packaged and ready-to-eat foods, non-green leafy vegetables and added fat than boys (P≤0·05). Boys reported more frequent consumption of eggs and street foods than girls (P≤0·05).
Adolescents’ eating patterns in a globalizing city reflect a combination of global/non-local and traditional foods, access and preferences. As global foods continue to appear in low- and middle-income countries, understanding dietary patterns and preferences can inform efforts to promote diversity and healthfulness of foods.
Our understanding of the politics of race, indigeneity, and ethnicity is informed not only by the work of scholars, but also by the work of leaders and practitioners, many of whom are pioneers in their respective fields. The Journal of Race, Ethnicity, and Politics (JREP) is proud to inaugurate this Q&A series with State Senator Ricardo Lara. Our hope is that forums like these will help advance our collective scholarship by better informing our research agendas, validating some of our claims, and building more bridges between the worlds of research, politics, and policy.
For Table B.1, we came up with a measure of state-level legislative activity on immigrant integration based on reports from the National Conference of State Legislatures from 2005, 2006, and 2007, and included any measures that bear a significant relationship to illegal immigration. Two graduate research assistants were instructed to code the bills on an ordinal scale of 1: “low impact” and 2: “high impact” on immigrant rights and/or access to benefits. These categories were drawn based on the provision's likely effects on immigrant life chances and the number of immigrants likely to be affected. Since these two categories offered a stark distinction, inter-coder reliability was 94 percent. In the cases where two codes conflicted, the principal investigator provided the tie-breaking vote. The dependent variable is no major laws, one major law, and two or more major laws. We model the results as an ordered logistic regression, which is appropriate when outcomes take on 3 or more ordinal values.
For Table B.2, we also measured state policies on enforcement and employer mandates, as of January 2012, using a database from Findlaw. Factor analyses revealed that these two measures represented one underlying factor. We use an Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) estimator, given that the outcome is a continuous (non-dichotomous) variable, and present the results as standardized coefficients.
Since 2004, the United States has seen a flurry of state and local laws dealing with unauthorized immigrants. Though initially restrictionist, these laws have recently undergone a dramatic shift toward promoting integration. How are we to make sense of this new immigration federalism? What are its causes? And what are its consequences for the federal-state balance of power? In The New Immigration Federalism, Professors Pratheepan Gulasekaram and S. Karthick Ramakrishnan provide answers to these questions using a mix of quantitative, historical, and doctrinal legal analysis. In so doing they refute the popular 'demographic necessity' argument put forward by anti-immigrant activists and politicians. Instead, they posit that immigration federalism is rooted in a political process that connects both federal and subfederal actors: the Polarized Change Model. Their model captures not only the spread of restrictionist legislation but also its abrupt turnaround in 2012, projecting valuable insights for the future.