To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Recent studies indicate that - due to climate change - the Earth is undergoing rapid changes in all cryospheric components, including polar sea ice shrinkage, mountain glacier recession, thawing permafrost, and diminishing snow cover. This book provides a comprehensive summary of all components of the Earth's cryosphere, reviewing their history, physical and chemical characteristics, geographical distributions, and projected future states. This new edition has been completely updated throughout, and provides state-of-the-art data from GlobSnow-2 CRYOSAT, ICESAT, and GRACE. It includes a comprehensive summary of cryospheric changes in land ice, permafrost, freshwater ice, sea ice, and ice sheets. It discusses the models developed to understand cryosphere processes and predict future changes, including those based on remote sensing, field campaigns, and long-term ground observations. Boasting an extensive bibliography, over 120 figures, and end-of-chapter review questions, it is an ideal resource for students and researchers of the cryosphere.
A major debris flow, the Trig Point Hill flow, originating from Kerimasi volcano (Tanzania) contains numerous blocks of extrusive/pyroclastic carbonatites similar to those exposed at the rim of the currently inactive crater. The blocks of calcite carbonatite consist of: (1) large clasts of corroded and altered coarse grained calcite; (2) primary prismatic inclusion bearing phenocrystal calcite; and (3) a matrix consisting primarily of fine-grained prismatic calcite. The large clasts are inclusion free and exhibit a ‘corduroy-like’ texture resulting from solution along cleavage planes. The resulting voids are filled by brown Fe–Mn hydroxides/oxides and secondary calcite. The prismatic or lath-shaped phenocrystal calcite is not altered and contains melt inclusions consisting principally of primary Na–Ca carbonates which contain earlier-formed crystals of monticellite, periclase, apatite, Mn–Mg-magnetite, Mn–Fe-sphalerite and Nb-perovskite. Individual Na–Ca carbonate inclusions are of uniform composition, and the overall range of all inclusions analysed (wt.%) is from 28.7 to 35.9 CaO; 16.7–23.6 Na2O; 0.5–2.8 K2O, with minor SO3 (1.1–2.2) and SrO (0.34–1.0). The Na–Ca carbonate compositions are similar to that of shortite, although this phase is not present. The Na–Ca carbonates are considered to be primary deuteric phases and not secondary minerals formed after nyerereite. Monticellite shows limited compositional variation and contains 2–4 wt.% MnO and 12 wt.% FeO and is Mn-poor relative to monticellite in Oldoinyo Lengai natrocarbonatite. Periclase is Fe-bearing with up to 13 wt.% FeO. Spinels are Cr-free, Mn-poor and belong to the magnetite–magnesioferrite series in contrast to Mn-rich spinels of the magnetite–jacobsite series occurring in Oldoinyo Lengai natrocarbonatite. The matrix in which the ‘corduroy’ clasts and phenocrystal calcite are set consists of closely packed small prisms of calcite lacking melt inclusions, with interstitial fine-grained apatite, baryte, strontianite and minor fluorite. Pore spaces are filled with secondary Mn–Fe hydroxides/oxides, anhydrite and gypsum. The hypothesis that flow-aligned calcite in volcanic calciocarbonatites from Kerimasi, Tinderet, Homa and Catanda is altered nyerereite is discussed and it is considered that these calcite are either primary phases or altered melilite. The nyerereite alteration hypothesis is discussed with respect to the volumetric and compositional aspects of pseudomorphism by dissolution–precipitation replacement mechanisms. This study concludes that none of the volcanic calciocarbonatites containing flow-aligned calcite phenocrysts are altered natrocarbonatite.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Irreproducible and incompletely reported research lead to misallocated resources, wasted effort in pursing inappropriate avenues of investigation, and loss of public trust. To address this challenge, we employed a Team Science approach to create a multi-modal program to support Rigor, Reproducibility, and Reporting in Translational Science. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We conducted literature searches to reveal sources of irreproducibility and recommended corrective actions, invited leaders in the field to give lectures on opportunities to support reproducible science, and worked with the Rockefeller team science leadership group to instill an overarching rigor approach, infused into all training efforts. This multifaceted program was labeled R3 (R-cubed) for Enhancing Scientific Rigor, Reproducibility, and Reporting. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Didactic Courses:
Introduction to Biostatistics and Critical Thinking – focus on pitfalls in inferential statistics, consequences of poor research, and errors in published research.
Scientific Writing – teaches methods and procedures in writing to ensure reproducibility. Lecture Series
Established nine lectures on topics related to R3, including Data Management, Statistical Methods, Genomic Analyses, Data Repositories, Data Sharing, Pharmacy Formulation, and e-lab notebooks. Website
Creating a comprehensive website as repository for research, methods, programs, updates, and improvements related to R3. KL2 Clinical Scholars Seminars and Navigation
Scholars participate in seminars and tutorials to discuss opportunities to improve R3 across the research life-course.
DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Striving for research reproducibility takes focused energy, discipline, and vigilance, but the effort is worthwhile as rigorous and reproducible science is the prerequisite for successful translation of great discoveries into improved health. CONFLICT OF INTEREST DESCRIPTION: none
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: We have developed a comprehensive Translational Research Navigation Program to guide investigators all the way from protocol development through study closure. As the program evolved, we initially developed organizational tools and then restructured them into a series of checklists to ensure that critical elements were not excluded or duplicated. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: A series of checklists to assure that all research elements, including regulatory, scientific, and institutional, are addressed from protocol inception through study closure were developed by clinical research coordinators/navigators. The checklists are periodically updated and modified to reflect changing local and national regulations and policies. The first tool became the “Protocol Development Checklist” and then additional tools were developed and modified into a suite of navigation checklists that include “Protocol Implementation Checklist,” “Protocol Conduct Checklist,” and “Protocol Completion Checklist.” RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The checklists have been incorporated into the Translational Research Navigation Program and have enhanced the organization and quality of protocols throughout their lifespan. For example, implementation of the Protocol Development Checklist resulted in a reduction in time to IRB approval (currently 10 days), and implementation of the Protocol Implementation Checklist has impacted the time from IRB approval to study start-up. The Protocol Conduct Checklist has aided investigators in being better prepared and more organized for study conduct activities and the Protocol Closure Checklist has assured timely protocol closure and regulatory compliance, including reporting to ClinicalTrials.gov. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Protocol checklists are powerful tools to enhance thoroughness, organization, and quality of the clinical research process. The Rockefeller University protocol checklists are available to the CTSA and Scientific Communities. CONFLICT OF INTEREST DESCRIPTION: NA.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: To facilitate the development of innovative injection products by providing translational researchers with a regulatory and manufacturing road map for producing small batch sterile products for Phase 1 research use. To leverage recent AMC investments in facility improvements and pharmacy training in the areas of sterile product production, testing, and environmental controls, that can be used to support production of phase 1 clinical trial supplies METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Searching and organizing relevant data and information from web portals and databases in the following: areas: FDA, EMA, USP regulations, regulatory science, pharmaceutical formulation and analytics, supply vendors, analytical testing laboratories, and product testing laboratories. Present the information using a user friendly format including flow charts and development timelines, taking the perspective of the translational investigator. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS:
Choosing AMC resources vs outside consultants and vendors, leveraging local resources where possible
Qualifying and monitoring suppliers, testing laboratories, in-house departments, and Contract Drug Manufacturing Organizations (CDMO)
Bringing together the deliverables for the IND CMC section
Where and how to leverage available products and science to simplify safe and reliable production
DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Use and utility of injectable drug products, both small molecule and biologics, is growing rapidly, and is projected to continue to escalate well into the next decade. This is due not only to advances in medicine, but also to improvements in AMC-based sterile product production, and a better understanding of small batch manufacturing methods. All three trends align in academic medical centers (AMC) and can be utilized by translational researchers, if they can understand the potential and regulatory requirements.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: There is universal recognition of the importance of team science and team leadership. We have developed a semi-quantitative translational science specific team leadership competency assessment tool and have begun implementation studies to assess the impact of personalized feedback on the team science leadership skills of KL2 Clinical Scholars. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: To create the instrument, we employed a modified Delphi approach by conducting a thorough literature review on Leadership to concretize the relevant constructs, then used these extracted constructs as a springboard for the Rockefeller Team Science Educators (TSE’s) to discuss and refine the leadership domain areas, collectively create domain-specific survey items. Further discussion helped refined the number, grouping, and wording. Scholars also contributed feedback in item development. We piloted the Leadership Survey by having all of the Rockefeller TSEs rate Clinical Scholars, and having each Scholar rate themselves. Each item was answered using a six-point Likert scale where a low score indicated poor expression and a high score represented excellent expression of the specific leadership attribute. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Incorporation into a REDCap data base made consenting and rating process by TSE’s and the Scholars straightforward. The a priori domains (Foundational Leadership Competencies, Professionalism, Team Building and Team Sustainability, Appropriate Resource Use and Study Execution, and Regulatory Accountability) had high internal validity and good internal factor structure. The congruence between TSE and Scholar self-ratings were uniformly high, and discordance was often a function of “confidence” and “modesty” on the part of the scholar, rather than deficiency. Supporting comments were informative about performance barriers and mechanisms for improvement. Return of results allowed for the exploration of training gaps. Scholars were surveyed to gauge their reaction to the formal feedback. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This quantification of team science leadership constructs has allowed for A)- the articulation of constructs essential for successful Translational Scientists to acquire during their training, B)- identification of gaps in that training and skill set, and C)- mechanisms for bolstering any identified gaps in these essential leadership constructs. CONFLICT OF INTEREST DESCRIPTION: None
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To create the instrument, we employed a modified Delphi approach by conducting a thorough literature review on Leadership to help concretize the relevant constructs, and then usied these extracted constructs as a springboard for the Rockefeller Team Science Educators (TSE’s) to discuss and refine the leadership domain areas, collectively creating domain-specific survey items, and then further discussed and refining the number, grouping, and wording of the items. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We piloted the Leadership Survey by having all of the Rockefeller TSEs rate Clinical Scholars. Each item was answered using a six-point Likert scale where a low score indicated poor expression of the specific leadership attribute and a high score represented excellent expression of the specific leadership attribute. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Means, medians, standard deviations, and ranges of each item were calculated and tabulated. A complete (Pearson) correlation matrix was computed so that the raw inter-item relationships can be observed. For each a priori Domain an equal weighted summary scale was created and tabulated for review. The internal consistency of each a priori scale was assessed by calculating Cronbach’s Alpha (α). Items with low Item to Construct coefficients were candidates for elimination or modification, and overall scales with low’s will undergo further discussion. To challenge our assumptions of the construction and integrity of each domain, we employed exploratory Principal Components Analysis (PCA), followed by orthogonally rotated Factor Analysis (FA). We also forced the PCA / FA analysis to extract the a priori dimensions that allowed us to compare if the empirical and a priori structures match. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: We are partnering with the CTSA programs at Penn and Yale to assess issues of generalizability and scalability. We are working with Vanderbilt to install survey onto REDCap for ease of dissemination. Will continue to assess psychometric properties and refine as we receive more input.
Paleoclimatic history from the Eocene to the Anthropocene is summarized. First, the variation of temperatures over geologic time is reviewed. Geological records from ocean sediment cores and ice cores are described. The main climate drivers associated with orbital variations of the Earth and the global carbon cycle are noted. Then the climatic conditions during the major geologic epochs from the Eocene to present are discussed. During the early Eocene (56-34 million years ago, MYA) there was a Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum attributed to high carbon dioxide concentrations. Cooling around 34 MYA due to reduced atmospheric carbon dioxide led to Antarctic glaciation with major buildup around 15 MYA. The Plio-Pleistocene starting around 5 MYA, saw 40-kyr glacial cycles that switched to 100-kyr at 0.8 MYA. Large ice sheets formed and retreated over North America, Fenno-Scandinavia and the British Isles and West Antarctica. The post-glacial Holocene started at 11.7 kyr. The time when human influence began to dominate- the Anthropocene – is still debated. Polar amplification of global warming since the late 20th century is discussed, as is the role of poleward transport of heat and moisture by planetary waves.
The climate of the Greenland ice sheet is determined by latitude and altitude. Mean annual accumulation is ~337 mm, but >2000 mm in the southeast. There are four snow/ice facies. Melt area is irregularly expanding. Supraglacial streams carry melt water to surface lakes and moulins. Surface mass balance became negative from 1990. Mass loss for 2011-14 averaged 296 Gt/yr. The Antarctic ice sheet is mainly grounded on bedrock in the east, but the West Antarctic ice sheet (WAIS) is grounded below sea level making it potentially unstable. The climate is extremely cold and arid. Annual melt affects ~10 percent of the ice sheet. Blue ice areas cover 1.7 percent of the ice sheet. Megadunes and glazed areas are common on the East Antarctic plateau. Mass loss of ice has been pronounced in the Amundsen-Bellingshausen Sea sector and the Antarctic Peninsula. Ice shelves are mainly a feature of the Antarctic. There are eleven with the largest being the Ross and Weddell. Thickness decreases from 1600 m at the grounding line to 300 m at the seaward edge. Hydro-fracture of water-filled crevasses probably caused the breakup of Larsen B. Basal melt is related to basal channels transporting upwelled Circumpolar Deep Water.
The atmospheric and oceanic circulations of the polar regions and their climatic conditions are discussed. Both hemispheres feature a large upper tropospheric polar vortex surrounded by westerly airflows, but the low-level circulations differ greatly. Around Antarctica there is a circumpolar trough, while in the northern hemisphere there is the year-round Icelandic low, with an Aleutian low and Siberian high in winter. The Southern Ocean has a continuous Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) flowing eastward while the North Atlantic Current enters the Arctic Ocean via the Norwegian Sea and the East Greenland Current carries cold water and sea ice southward. Despite the polar night / day, the radiative regimes differ owing to persistent low clouds in the Arctic summer, a variable surface albedo, and winter cyclones. The Antarctic plateau presents a persistent ice surface. Arctic temperatures range from ~-30 °C in January to near 0 °C in summer, while at South Pole they are about 30 °C lower. Surface temperature inversions are prevalent in both regions. Annual precipitation in the Arctic is <200 mm, but most of Antarctica has even less. The Arctic and Antarctic Peninsula have warmed at twice the global average since the 1950's due to polar amplification.
In the Southern Ocean the Antarctic Circumpolar Current flows continuously eastward, except near the Antarctic coast. It has multiple fronts. The Ross Sea and Weddell Sea embayments are half covered by ice shelves. The mainly ice-covered Arctic Ocean has wide continental shelves and receives large quantities of river runoff resulting in low salinities. Eight seas surround the central Arctic - the Barents, Kara, Laptev, East Siberian, Chukchi, Beaufort, Lincoln and Greenland, as well as the channels of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. North Atlantic water enters the Barents Sea and cold water and ice exit via the East Greenland Current. The Labrador Sea links Baffin Bay to the North Atlantic. The Bering Sea and Sea of Okhotsk are marginal seas of the North Pacific and Pacific water enters the Arctic via Bering Strait. Ocean warming caused 1.1 mm/yr of sea level rise from 1992 – 2010, with glacier melt accounting for 0.86 mm and Greenland and Antarctica 0.60 mm. Arctic ice is ~60 percent first year and 40 percent multiyear. Its extent has decreased dramatically since the 1980s, especially in September. Antarctic sea ice is mainly seasonal. Recently, it had been increasing until 2016. Coastal polynyas are major sea ice producers.
Observations in polar environments are discussed, beginning with International Polar Years, the International Geophysical Year, the Tundra Biome project and the Long-term Ecological Research Program. The development of observing networks for climate, frozen ground, and glaciers is traced. In situ measurements of meteorological conditions in both polar regions, North Pole Drifting Stations, and the use of icebreakers are described. Oceanographic observation from ARGO floats and buoys are examined. Upward looking sonar measurements of sea ice draft are described. Remote sensing, beginning with aerial, followed by satellite photography, and mapping of glaciers and snow cover from Landsat, is described. Data from passive microwave sensors and their applications to mapping sea ice, snow water equivalent, and frozen ground are detailed. Radar applications to map sea ice and glaciers at high resolution from satellite, and the application of ground penetrating radar to determine ice sheet thickness and permafrost depth are noted. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) is used to map ice stream motion. Radar and laser altimetry are used to map ice sheet elevation and sea ice freeboard and are combined with data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite to calculate ice sheet mass balance. Finally, reanalysis products are described.
The geographical setting, history of scientific studies, and the climatic role of the cryosphere are discussed. Definitions of the Arctic, Antarctic and the Central Asian Third Pole are given Their similarities of climate and ice cover and contrasts (ice-covered ocean and massive ice sheet, and latitude/altitude) are noted. Scientific study of the Arctic began with the First International Polar Year, 1882-3 and the Fram expedition of F. Nansen. The contributions of Norwegian, Russian, Canadian and U.S. scientific programs in the Arctic Ocean and across fthe tundra are discussed. Antarctic research dates from R. Byrd's work in the 1920's -30s, but was mainly post World War II. The International Geophysical Year, 1957-8 was a major milestone with the establishment of permanent bases. Research in Central Asia and Tibet began in the 1950's from the USSR and China, respectively, focused on glaciers. The role of polar snow, land ice and sea ice in the climate system and important feedbacks are described.