The blond titi monkey Callicebus barbarabrownae lives in forest fragments in the caatinga (tropical thorn scrub and forest) of north-east Brazil. In 2004–2005 we carried out five surveys to determine its current distribution and conservation status; surveying forest fragments, interviewing local people, and recording vegetation types and patterns of land use. The blond titi monkey occurs mainly in Dense Arboreal Caatinga and Highland Coastal Rainforest in the state of Bahia, at elevations of 241–908 m. Its range extends over 291,438 km2, with an area of occupancy of 2,636 km2. Estimated minimum population was 260 individuals. It was not recorded in any protected area. Cattle ranching favours the persistence of forest fragments for this species, whereas agriculture, subsistence or commercial, does not. Our findings supported the IUCN Red List assessment of Critically Endangered for this species.