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Studies have reported mixed findings regarding the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on pregnant women and birth outcomes. This study used a quasi-experimental design to account for potential confounding by sociodemographic characteristics.
Data were drawn from 16 prenatal cohorts participating in the Environmental influences on Child Health Outcomes (ECHO) program. Women exposed to the pandemic (delivered between 12 March 2020 and 30 May 2021) (n = 501) were propensity-score matched on maternal age, race and ethnicity, and child assigned sex at birth with 501 women who delivered before 11 March 2020. Participants reported on perceived stress, depressive symptoms, sedentary behavior, and emotional support during pregnancy. Infant gestational age (GA) at birth and birthweight were gathered from medical record abstraction or maternal report.
After adjusting for propensity matching and covariates (maternal education, public assistance, employment status, prepregnancy body mass index), results showed a small effect of pandemic exposure on shorter GA at birth, but no effect on birthweight adjusted for GA. Women who were pregnant during the pandemic reported higher levels of prenatal stress and depressive symptoms, but neither mediated the association between pandemic exposure and GA. Sedentary behavior and emotional support were each associated with prenatal stress and depressive symptoms in opposite directions, but no moderation effects were revealed.
There was no strong evidence for an association between pandemic exposure and adverse birth outcomes. Furthermore, results highlight the importance of reducing maternal sedentary behavior and encouraging emotional support for optimizing maternal health regardless of pandemic conditions.
Consistent evidence from retrospective reports and case registry studies indicates that a history of depression is a major risk factor for depression in the peripartum period. However, longitudinal studies with racially and socioeconomically diverse samples of young mothers are lacking, and little is known about developmental patterns of depression across the lifespan that can inform preventive interventions.
Young primiparous mothers (n = 399, 13–25 years, 81% Black) were recruited from a population-based prospective study that began in childhood. Women reported on depression symptoms for at least 3 years prior to their pregnancy, during pregnancy, and at 4 months postpartum. Linear regression models were used to estimate change in pre-pregnancy depression severity and to evaluate associations between patterns of lifetime history and postpartum depression symptoms.
Results revealed high levels of continuity in depression from pregnancy to postpartum, and across multiple years pre-pregnancy to postpartum. Overall, depression severity leading up to pregnancy decreased over time, but patterns of worsening or improving symptoms were not associated with depression severity in the postpartum period. Instead, area under the pre-pregnancy trajectory curve, representing cumulative lifetime depression burden, was uniquely associated with postpartum depression after adjusting for prenatal depression severity.
Depression in the postpartum period should be considered within a lifespan perspective of risk that accumulates before conception. Clinical screening and early interventions are needed in adolescence and young adulthood to prevent the onset and persistence of depressive symptoms that could have long-term implications for peripartum health.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Low statistical power is a problem is many fields. We performed a systematic review to determine the median statistical power of studies of epilepsy surgery outcomes. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We performed a PubMed search for studies reporting epilepsy surgery outcomes for the years 1980-2000, focusing on studies using stereo-electroencephalography (SEEG). We extracted patient count data for comparisons of surgical outcome between groups, based on a prognostic factor. We defined a clinically meaningful difference the surgical outcome for MRI positive (66.9%) compared to MRI negative (45.5%) in the largest study in the series. The statistical power of a Chi-square test was computed as the percentage of simulated runs (10,000 repetitions) assuming this difference with a p-value less than 0.05. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Based on 69 studies, the median sample size was 38 patients, and the median statistical power was 24%. This implies at least a 17% (0.5/[0.24+0.05)) chance a study with a significant result in false, assuming 1:1 pre-test odds. A 'typical’ SEEG study with 33 patients and 2:1 allocation had a median significant odds ratio of 6.5, which over-estimates the true odds ratio of 2.4. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Studies of epilepsy surgery outcomes using SEEG are statistically underpowered. This means true effects will be missed, the chance a study with a significant result is false will be inflated, and significant effects found will be over-estimated. Studies of surgery outcome need better statistical rigor if they are to reliably guide treatment.
Self-reported activity restriction is an established correlate of depression in dementia caregivers (dCGs). It is plausible that the daily distribution of objectively measured activity is also altered in dCGs with depression symptoms; if so, such activity characteristics could provide a passively measurable marker of depression or specific times to target preventive interventions. We therefore investigated how levels of activity throughout the day differed in dCGs with and without depression symptoms, then tested whether any such differences predicted changes in symptoms 6 months later.
Design, setting, participants, and measurements:
We examined 56 dCGs (mean age = 71, standard deviation (SD) = 6.7; 68% female) and used clustering to identify subgroups which had distinct depression symptom levels, leveraging baseline Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression Scale–Revised Edition and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) measures, as well as a PHQ-9 score from 6 months later. Using wrist activity (mean recording length = 12.9 days, minimum = 6 days), we calculated average hourly activity levels and then assessed when activity levels relate to depression symptoms and changes in symptoms 6 months later.
Clustering identified subgroups characterized by: (1) no/minimal symptoms (36%) and (2) depression symptoms (64%). After multiple comparison correction, the group of dCGs with depression symptoms was less active from 8 to 10 AM (Cohen’s d ≤ −0.9). These morning activity levels predicted the degree of symptom change on the PHQ-9 6 months later (per SD unit β = −0.8, 95% confidence interval: −1.6, −0.1, p = 0.03) independent of self-reported activity restriction and other key factors.
These novel findings suggest that morning activity may protect dCGs from depression symptoms. Future studies should test whether helping dCGs get active in the morning influences the other features of depression in this population (i.e. insomnia, intrusive thoughts, and perceived activity restriction).
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