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Senior Instructors and Assistant Professors in their first academic appointment may not have all the tools for an efficient start to their careers. Although many institutions provide access to mentoring programs and seminars on faculty development, the timing and format of the offerings often conflict with ongoing responsibilities of the faculty, particularly clinical faculty.
We established a collaboration between the Clinical and Translational Science Institute (CTSI) and the University of Rochester Medical Center Office for Faculty Development with the goal of developing a week-long Junior Faculty Core Curriculum that would better suit faculty schedules. We convened focus groups and with their help, identified themes for inclusion in the course. Speakers were identified from among local senior faculty. University leadership was enlisted in promoting the course. Individual speakers and course content were evaluated daily, at the end of the week-long course, and 6 months later. Planning for subsequent years incorporated the feedback. Yearly evaluations and subsequent course modification continued.
Junior faculty from nearly every department in the Medical Center were represented. There was high learner satisfaction and participation however several limitations were identified and addressed in subsequent years. The focus on principles and available resources, not specific skills or content was appropriate. Daily interactions among participants from a wide variety of departments fostered networking among faculty who may not otherwise have met and discussed common interests
The ultimate value of such an early, intensive faculty development program will depend on whether it equips junior faculty to organize, develop, and achieve their academic goals better than alternative formats. This will require further study.
This chapter provides an overview of outcome measures in neurology clinical trials, including developing a conceptual endpoint model, role and use of biomarkers, and considerations on how to select, use and interpret them in the context of early-stage clinical trial design. Early stage clinical trials (phase 1-2) often employ biomarker targets for proof of concept or therapeutic validation. Therapeutic development programs can be viewed as in the learn zone and confirm zone, with confirmation occurring in the phase 3 trial designed to test clinical efficacy against a standard or placebo. Structural imaging with MRI or computed tomography (CT) has been used as both an entry criteria into clinical trials and as an outcome measure. MRI has frequently been used as a measure of treatment response of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Researchers should define the role each endpoint is intended to play in the clinical trial.
Objective: To determine the incremental cost-effectiveness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) in young adults presenting with equivocal neurological signs and symptoms. Designs and methods: A decision analysis of long-term survival using accuracy data from a diagnostic technology assessment of MRI and CT in patients with suspected multiple sclerosis, information from the medical literature, and clinical assumptions. Main results: In the baseline analysis, at 30% likelihood of an underlying neurologic disease, MRI use has an incremental cost of $101,670 for each additional quality-adjusted life-year saved compared with $20,290 for CT use. As the probability of disease increases, further MRI use becomes a cost-effective alternative costing $30,000 for each quality-adjusted life-year saved. If a negative MRI result provides reassurance, the incremental costs of immediate MRI use decreases and falls below $25,000 for each quality-adjusted life-year saved no matter the likelihood of disease. Conclusions: For most individuals with neurological symptoms or signs, CT imaging is cost-effective while MR imaging is not. The cost-effectiveness of MRI use, however, improves as the likelihood of an underlying neurological disease increases. For selected patients who highly value diagnostic information, MRI is a reasonable and cost-effective use of medical resources when even the likelihood of disease is quite low (5%).
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