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During the past decade—more precisely during the last five to seven years—the increased use of urban guerrilla warfare and terrorism have characterized the activities of many revolutionary groups in the less developed world. High-lighted by the olympic assassinations of 1972, this phenomenon has also been evident in various African and Asian states. It is in Latin America, however, that the change from the traditional rural base for guerrilla operations to an urban environment has been most pronounced. The years from 1962 to 1967 saw many Latin American insurgents copying the Cuban revolutionary model, with its emphasis on rural guerrilla operations and the peasantry as the ultimate motive force, but recent years have seen an equally strong pull toward either purely urban insurgency or a more balanced strategy according equal importance to both rural and urban activities. In either case, the identifiable shift away from a totally rural guerrilla strategy for most Latin American revolutionary groups seems an established fact.
From 2014 to 2020, we compiled radiocarbon ages from the lower 48 states, creating a database of more than 100,000 archaeological, geological, and paleontological ages that will be freely available to researchers through the Canadian Archaeological Radiocarbon Database. Here, we discuss the process used to compile ages, general characteristics of the database, and lessons learned from this exercise in “big data” compilation.
In April 2019, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) released its recovery plan for the jaguar Panthera onca after several decades of discussion, litigation and controversy about the status of the species in the USA. The USFWS estimated that potential habitat, south of the Interstate-10 highway in Arizona and New Mexico, had a carrying capacity of c. six jaguars, and so focused its recovery programme on areas south of the USA–Mexico border. Here we present a systematic review of the modelling and assessment efforts over the last 25 years, with a focus on areas north of Interstate-10 in Arizona and New Mexico, outside the recovery unit considered by the USFWS. Despite differences in data inputs, methods, and analytical extent, the nine previous studies found support for potential suitable jaguar habitat in the central mountain ranges of Arizona and New Mexico. Applying slightly modified versions of the USFWS model and recalculating an Arizona-focused model over both states provided additional confirmation. Extending the area of consideration also substantially raised the carrying capacity of habitats in Arizona and New Mexico, from six to 90 or 151 adult jaguars, using the modified USFWS models. This review demonstrates the crucial ways in which choosing the extent of analysis influences the conclusions of a conservation plan. More importantly, it opens a new opportunity for jaguar conservation in North America that could help address threats from habitat losses, climate change and border infrastructure.
Understanding place-based contributors to health requires geographically and culturally diverse study populations, but sharing location data is a significant challenge to multisite studies. Here, we describe a standardized and reproducible method to perform geospatial analyses for multisite studies. Using census tract-level information, we created software for geocoding and geospatial data linkage that was distributed to a consortium of birth cohorts located throughout the USA. Individual sites performed geospatial linkages and returned tract-level information for 8810 children to a central site for analyses. Our generalizable approach demonstrates the feasibility of geospatial analyses across study sites to promote collaborative translational research.
Background: Shared Healthcare Intervention to Eliminate Life-threatening Dissemination of MDROs in Orange County, California (SHIELD OC) was a CDC-funded regional decolonization intervention from April 2017 through July 2019 involving 38 hospitals, nursing homes (NHs), and long-term acute-care hospitals (LTACHs) to reduce MDROs. Decolonization in NH and LTACHs consisted of universal antiseptic bathing with chlorhexidine (CHG) for routine bathing and showering plus nasal iodophor decolonization (Monday through Friday, twice daily every other week). Hospitals used universal CHG in ICUs and provided daily CHG and nasal iodophor to patients in contact precautions. We sought to evaluate whether decolonization reduced hospitalization and associated healthcare costs due to infections among residents of NHs participating in SHIELD compared to nonparticipating NHs. Methods: Medicaid insurer data covering NH residents in Orange County were used to calculate hospitalization rates due to a primary diagnosis of infection (counts per member quarter), hospital bed days/member-quarter, and expenditures/member quarter from the fourth quarter of 2015 to the second quarter of 2019. We used a time-series design and a segmented regression analysis to evaluate changes attributable to the SHIELD OC intervention among participating and nonparticipating NHs. Results: Across the SHIELD OC intervention period, intervention NHs experienced a 44% decrease in hospitalization rates, a 43% decrease in hospital bed days, and a 53% decrease in Medicaid expenditures when comparing the last quarter of the intervention to the baseline period (Fig. 1). These data translated to a significant downward slope, with a reduction of 4% per quarter in hospital admissions due to infection (P < .001), a reduction of 7% per quarter in hospitalization days due to infection (P < .001), and a reduction of 9% per quarter in Medicaid expenditures (P = .019) per NH resident. Conclusions: The universal CHG bathing and nasal decolonization intervention adopted by NHs in the SHIELD OC collaborative resulted in large, meaningful reductions in hospitalization events, hospitalization days, and healthcare expenditures among Medicaid-insured NH residents. The findings led CalOptima, the Medicaid provider in Orange County, California, to launch an NH incentive program that provides dedicated training and covers the cost of CHG and nasal iodophor for OC NHs that enroll.
Disclosures: Gabrielle M. Gussin, University of California, Irvine, Stryker (Sage Products): Conducting studies in which contributed antiseptic product is provided to participating hospitals and nursing homes. Clorox: Conducting studies in which contributed antiseptic product is provided to participating hospitals and nursing homes. Medline: Conducting studies in which contributed antiseptic product is provided to participating hospitals and nursing homes. Xttrium: Conducting studies in which contributed antiseptic product is provided to participating hospitals and nursing homes.
As the IAU heads towards its second century, many changes have simultaneously transformed Astronomy and the human condition world-wide. Amid the amazing recent discoveries of exoplanets, primeval galaxies, and gravitational radiation, the human condition on Earth has become blazingly interconnected, yet beset with ever-increasing problems of over-population, pollution, and never-ending wars. Fossil-fueled global climate change has begun to yield perilous consequences. And the displacement of people from war-torn nations has reached levels not seen since World War II.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy has a range of clinical severity in children. Treatment options are limited, mainly on account of small patient size. Disopyramide is a sodium channel blocker with negative inotropic properties that effectively reduces left ventricular outflow tract gradients in adults with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, but its efficacy in children is uncertain. A retrospective chart review of patients ⩽21 years of age with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy at our institution and treated with disopyramide was performed. Left ventricular outflow tract Doppler gradients before and after disopyramide initiation were compared as the primary outcome measure. Nine patients received disopyramide, with a median age of 5.6 years (range 6 days–12.9 years). The median left ventricular outflow tract Doppler gradient before initiation of disopyramide was 81 mmHg (range 30–132 mmHg); eight patients had post-initiation echocardiograms, in which the median lowest recorded Doppler gradient was 43 mmHg (range 15–100 mmHg), for a median % reduction of 58.2% (p=0.002). With median follow-up of 2.5 years, eight of nine patients were still alive, although disopyramide had been discontinued in six of the nine patients. Reasons for discontinuation included septal myomectomy (four patients), heart transplantation (one patient), and side effects (one patient). Disopyramide was effective for the relief of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction in children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, although longer-term data suggest that its efficacy is not sustained. In general, it was well tolerated. Further study in larger patient populations is warranted.
The History, Electrocardiogram (ECG), Age, Risk Factors, and Troponin (HEART) score is a decision aid designed to risk stratify emergency department (ED) patients with acute chest pain. It has been validated for ED use, but it has yet to be evaluated in a prehospital setting.
A prehospital modified HEART score can predict major adverse cardiac events (MACE) among undifferentiated chest pain patients transported to the ED.
A retrospective cohort study of patients with chest pain transported by two county-based Emergency Medical Service (EMS) agencies to a tertiary care center was conducted. Adults without ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) were included. Inter-facility transfers and those without a prehospital 12-lead ECG or an ED troponin measurement were excluded. Modified HEART scores were calculated by study investigators using a standardized data collection tool for each patient. All MACE (death, myocardial infarction [MI], or coronary revascularization) were determined by record review at 30 days. The sensitivity and negative predictive values (NPVs) for MACE at 30 days were calculated.
Over the study period, 794 patients met inclusion criteria. A MACE at 30 days was present in 10.7% (85/794) of patients with 12 deaths (1.5%), 66 MIs (8.3%), and 12 coronary revascularizations without MI (1.5%). The modified HEART score identified 33.2% (264/794) of patients as low risk. Among low-risk patients, 1.9% (5/264) had MACE (two MIs and three revascularizations without MI). The sensitivity and NPV for 30-day MACE was 94.1% (95% CI, 86.8-98.1) and 98.1% (95% CI, 95.6-99.4), respectively.
Prehospital modified HEART scores have a high NPV for MACE at 30 days. A study in which prehospital providers prospectively apply this decision aid is warranted.
Three annual applications of glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] with three ropewick applicators were compared to hoeing and cultivation for the control of johnsongrass [Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. ♯3 SORHA] in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. ‘Acala SJ-2′) in 1980 and 1981. The three applicators provided about equal control of johnsongrass. Averaged over treatments, years, and dates of application, plots treated with glyphosate contained 83% fewer live johnsongrass shoots (14/m2) than cultivated control plots (84/m2) 2 to 3 weeks after each application. Glyphosate-treated plots yielded an average of 81% more seed cotton (2010 kg/ha) than cultivated control plots (1110 kg/ha). However, yields of treated plots averaged 33% less than plots maintained weed-free by hoeing. Although applications of glyphosate reduced johnsongrass populations 83%, the competitive effect of johnsongrass on cotton prior to the initiation of treatments, plus the competition from escape plants between treatments, prevented cotton from yielding normally.
Three applications/yr of glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] with a ropewick applicator (RWA), a roller applicator (RA), and a recirculating sprayer (RCS) were compared to hoeing and cultivation for the control of johnsongrass [Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. ♯3 SORHA] in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. ‘Acala SJ-2′) in six field experiments from 1979 to 1981. Averaged over the 3 yr and dates of application, plots treated with glyphosate contained 78% fewer live johnsongrass shoots (15/m2) than cultivated-control plots (68/m2). Although applications of glyphosate with the RWA and RA improved or tended to improve yields of cotton, only plots treated with the RWA yielded significantly more seed cotton than cultivated control plots in all years. However, yields of plots treated with the RWA still averaged 38% less than hoed plots. Plots treated with the RA produced significantly more cotton than cultivated-control plots only in 1981.
For the first time, valence electron energy-loss spectroscopy (VEELS) was applied to individual single-crystalline SnO2 nanowires to investigate the dielectric function, band gap, and optical absorption coefficient. The results are compared with data from optical techniques such as spectroscopic ellipsometry and UV-Vis, and theoretical calculations from variations of density functional theory. The data obtained agree well with the standard optical and theoretical techniques. The dielectric function and optical absorption coefficient are given up to 20 eV, which otherwise requires a synchrotron source and large single crystals via optical methods. The energy loss function is given up to 40 eV, which gives a useful comparison to previous theoretical studies in an energy range that cannot be achieved via optical measurements. The comparison gives confidence in the accuracy of this method for exploring spatially-resolved measurements in individual nanoparticles or more complex nanostructures that are otherwise difficult to measure accurately using optical techniques.
Control of glyphosate-resistant (GR) horseweed in soybean with glyphosate (900 g ai ha−1) plus saflufenacil (25 gaiha−1) has been variable. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of GR horseweed height, density, and time of day (TOD) at application on saflufenacil plus glyphosate efficacy in soybean. All experiments were completed six times during a 2 yr period (2014, 2015) in fields previously confirmed with GR horseweed. Applications from 0900 to 2100 hours provided optimal control of GR horseweed 8 WAA. Soybean yield paralleled GR horseweed control with the highest yield of 3000kgha−1 at 1500 hours, and the lowest yield of 2400kgha−1 at 0600 hours. The height and density of GR horseweed at application had minimal effect on saflufenacil efficacy. Saflufenacil provided>99% control of GR horseweed when applied to small plants and low densities; however, control decreased to 95% when>25 cm tall, and to 96% in densities>800 plants m−2 at 6 WAA due to some plant regrowth. TOD of application had a greater influence on GR horseweed control with saflufenacil than height or density. To optimize control of GR horseweed, saflufenacil should be applied during daytime hours to small plants at low densities. Optimizing GR horseweed control minimizes weed seed return and weed interference.
New dating confirms that people occupied the Australian continent before the earliest time inferred from conventional radiocarbon analysis. Many of the new ages were obtained by accelerator mass spectrometry 14C dating after an acid–base–acid pretreatment with bulk combustion (ABA-BC) or after a newly developed acid–base–wet oxidation pretreatment with stepped combustion (ABOX-SC). The samples (charcoal) came from the earliest occupation levels of the Devil's Lair site in southwestern Western Australia. Initial occupation of this site was previously dated 35,000 14C yr B.P. Whereas the ABA-BC ages are indistinguishable from background beyond 42,000 14C yr B.P., the ABOX-SC ages are in stratigraphic order to ∼55,000 14C yr B.P. The ABOX-SC chronology suggests that people were in the area by 48,000 cal yr B.P. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL), electron spin resonance (ESR) ages, U-series dating of flowstones, and 14C dating of emu eggshell carbonate are in agreement with the ABOX-SC 14C chronology. These results, based on four independent techniques, reinforce arguments for early colonization of the Australian continent.
Coapplication of herbicides and insecticides affords growers an opportunity to control multiple pests with one application, given that efficacy is not compromised. Glufosinate was applied at 470 g ai/ha both alone and in combination with the insecticides acephate, acetamiprid, bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, dicrotophos, emamectin benzoate, imidacloprid, indoxacarb, lambda-cyhalothrin, methoxyfenozide, spinosad, or thiamethoxam to determine coapplication effects on control of some of the more common and/or troublesome broadleaf weeds infesting cotton. Hemp sesbania, pitted morningglory, prickly sida, redroot pigweed, and sicklepod were treated at the three- to four- or the seven- to eight-leaf growth stage. When applied at the earlier application timing, glufosinate applied alone provided complete control at 14 d after treatment, and control was unaffected by coapplication with insecticides. When glufosinate application was delayed to the later application timing, visual weed control was unaffected by insecticide coapplication. Fresh-weight reduction from the herbicide applied to larger weeds was negatively impacted by addition of the insecticides dicrotophos and imidacloprid with respect to redroot pigweed and prickly sida, but only in one of two experiments. In most cases, delaying application of glufosinate to larger weeds resulted in reduced control compared to that from a three- to four-leaf application, with the extent of reduction varying by species. Results indicate that when applied according to the herbicide label (three- to four-leaf stage), glufosinate/ insecticide coapplications offer producers the ability to integrate pest management strategies and to limit application costs without sacrificing control of the broadleaf weeds evaluated.
The control of glyphosate-resistant (GR) horseweed (Conyza canadensis) in soybean has been variable with glyphosate plus saflufenacil. The objective of this research was to determine the biologically effective rate (BER) of saflufenacil, saflufenacil mixed with glyphosate, and metribuzin mixed with saflufenacil and glyphosate applied preplant (PP) for the control of GR horseweed in no-till soybean; a study was conducted to determine each of the three treatments. For each study, seven field sites infested with GR horseweed were used over a 2-yr period (2014, 2015). Saflufenacil alone at 25 and 36 g ai ha–1 provided 90 and 95% control of GR Horseweed 8 wk after application, while the BER to achieve 98% control was outside of the treatment range tested. The saflufenacil plus glyphosate (900 g ai ha–1) BER experiment found less saflufenacil was required as 25, 34, and 47 g ha–1 provided 90, 95, and 98% control of GR horseweed respectively. The metribuzin BER experiment found 61, 261, and 572 g ha–1 was required to provide 90, 95 and 98% control of GR horseweed, respectively, mixed with saflufenacil (25 g ha–1) and glyphosate (900 g ha–1). The addition of metribuzin with the recommended rate of saflufenacil (25 g ha–1) plus glyphosate improved control and a second effective herbicide mode of action for the control of GR horseweed. The use of a threeway herbicide mixture can be an effective weed management strategy to control GR horseweed in soybean.
Field experiments were conducted in 2003 and 2004 to evaluate the effects of reduced rates of glufosinate on development and yield of three nonglufosinate-resistant cotton varieties. The varieties evaluated were selected on their relative maturity with PayMaster (PM) 1218, early maturity; FiberMax (FM) 960, medium maturity; and Delta and Pine Land (DP) 555, late maturity. Rates of 47, 23, and 4.7 g ai/ha were applied, representing 10, 5, and 1% of the typical use rate per application of 467 g ai/ha, respectively. As might be expected, when averaged over varieties, the 10% rate showed more injury than the 5%, and the 5% rate caused more visual injury than the 1% rate. Pooled over timing and rate, PM1218 showed more injury (18%) than FM960 (7%), which showed more injury than DP555 (1%) 7 days after application (DAA) at the 10% rate. However, although PM1218 showed the most visual injury, this did not translate into delay in maturity or loss of lint yield. DP555 showed 70 kg ai/ha and 50 kg ai/ha lint yield loss when glufosinate was applied at the 10% rate on the fifth and eighth node stage, respectively. DP555 was delayed in maturity when glufosinate was applied at the 10% rate on the eighth node stage. FM960 showed 30 kg/ha lint yield loss when glufosinate was applied at the 10 and 5% rates at the fifth node stage. Maturity of FM960 was delayed with the 10 and 5% rates applied at the fifth node stage.
Field research was conducted for 2 yr to determine the effects of reduced rates of bromoxynil on growth and yield of non–bromoxynil-resistant cotton. Rates of 4.5, 9, 17, 35, 70, and 140 g ha−1, representing 0.008, 0.016, 0.031, 0.063, 0.125, and 0.25 fractions of the maximum labeled use rate per application (560 g ha−1), were applied to cotton at the two-, five-, or nine-node growth stage. Visual injury was reduced because application timing was delayed from two- to five-node stage in all experiments and from five- to nine-node stage in two of three experiments. Although negatively affected at all application timings, plant height reduction response decreased with increasing cotton maturity. Plant dry weight was most negatively affected after application at the two-node stage. Bromoxynil application, based on the node above white flower number, did not result in maturity delays but did promote earlier maturity when applied at 140 g ha−1 to two- and five-node stage cotton in one of the three experiments. Final plant population was reduced only at the two- and five-node timings, with response more pronounced at the initial timing. Seedcotton yield after bromoxynil application at the highest rate to two-leaf cotton was reduced 34% compared with other rates and the nontreated control. Bromoxynil applied to five- or nine-node cotton did not significantly reduce yield.