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A national need is to prepare for and respond to accidental or intentional disasters categorized as chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, or explosive (CBRNE). These incidents require specific subject-matter expertise, yet have commonalities. We identify 7 core elements comprising CBRNE science that require integration for effective preparedness planning and public health and medical response and recovery. These core elements are (1) basic and clinical sciences, (2) modeling and systems management, (3) planning, (4) response and incident management, (5) recovery and resilience, (6) lessons learned, and (7) continuous improvement. A key feature is the ability of relevant subject matter experts to integrate information into response operations. We propose the CBRNE medical operations science support expert as a professional who (1) understands that CBRNE incidents require an integrated systems approach, (2) understands the key functions and contributions of CBRNE science practitioners, (3) helps direct strategic and tactical CBRNE planning and responses through first-hand experience, and (4) provides advice to senior decision-makers managing response activities. Recognition of both CBRNE science as a distinct competency and the establishment of the CBRNE medical operations science support expert informs the public of the enormous progress made, broadcasts opportunities for new talent, and enhances the sophistication and analytic expertise of senior managers planning for and responding to CBRNE incidents.
For the quantitative analysis of a 65 Cu-30 Ni-S Fe alloy, a 96 Cu-3 Si-1 Mn alloy, and a 78 Cu-20 Zn-2 Al alloy, the Ziebold empirical method of correcting electron-microbeam-probe data was used. Four binary standards, of single-phase Cu-Ni, Ni-Fe, Cu-Mn, and Cu-Zn alloys, were cast and the a correction factor found for each element in each binary by Ziebold's relationship (1 – K)/K – α (1 – C)/C, where K – I/I0 found in the probe and C is the weight fraction found by wet chemistry. The ARL EMX probe was used at 30 kV with a 25-μ beam diameter to negate inhomogeneities. Experience with these binaries indicated that in the presence of secondary fluorescence, the experimental α values agreed poorly with theoretically calculated K values; however, where secondary fluorescence was negligible, agreement between the experimental and theoretical α values was good. The α values for Cu–Si, Cu–Al, Al-Zn, and Mn–Si alioys, were therefore calculated from the theoretical equations. The α values for Cu–Fe alloys were also calculated from theoretical considerations because single-phase binaries over the composition range of interest could not be made for this system. All these α values were used in Ziebold's ternary equations to correct probe data (again using a 25-μ beam) from specimens of Cu–Ni-Fe, Cu–Si–Mn, and Cu-Zn–Al. These results were compared to wet-chemistry analyses for the same specimens with quite good correlation between the two sets of data. Calibration curves for the binary systems Cu-Ni, Cu-Fe, Ni-Fe, Cu-Mn, Cu-Si, Mn-Si, Cu-Al, Cu-Zn, and Al-Zn were made and are reproduced.
Multi-agency public protection arrangements (MAPPA) have been in operation for around 18 years in England and Wales. The primary purpose is for the sharing of information between agencies regarding the risk management of offenders returning to the community from custodial and hospital settings. The legal framework regarding information by psychiatrists is not dealt with in one single policy or guidance document. Psychiatrists must use their clinical and professional judgement when engaging with the MAPPA process, mindful of guidance available from professional bodies such as the Royal College of Psychiatrists, General Medical Council and British Medical Association.
After reading this article you will be able to:
•Learn the legal and political background that led to the formation of MAPPA
•Understand the structure and function of MAPPA
•Understand the role of psychiatrists in the MAPPA process
DECLARATION OF INTEREST
R.T. is a member of the London Strategic Management Board for MAPPA.
Examining neurometabolic abnormalities in critical brain areas in schizophrenia and major depressive disorder (MDD) may help guide future pharmacological interventions including glutamate-modulating treatments.
To measure metabolite concentrations within the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and thalamus of people with schizophrenia and people with MDD.
Spectra were acquired from 16 volunteers with schizophrenia, 17 with MDD and 18 healthy controls using magnetic resonance spectroscopy on a 7 Tesla scanner.
In the thalamus, there were lower glycine concentrations in the schizophrenia group relative to control (P=0.017) and MDD groups (P=0.012), and higher glutamine concentrations relative to healthy controls (P=0.009). In the thalamus and the ACC, the MDD group had lower myo-inositol concentrations than the control (P=0.014, P=0.009, respectively) and schizophrenia (P=0.004, P=0.002, respectively) groups.
These results support the glutamatergic theory of schizophrenia and indicate a potential glycine deficiency in the thalamus. In addition, reduced myo-inositol concentrations in MDD suggest its involvement in the disorder.
This study tests novel methods for automatically identifying annual layers in a shallow Antarctic ice core (WDC05Q) using images that were collected with an optical scanner at the US National Ice Core Laboratory. A new method of optimized variance maximization (OVM) modeled the density-related changes in annual layer thickness directly from image variance. This was done by using multi-objective complex (MOCOM) parameter optimization to drive a low-pass filtering scheme. The OVM-derived changes in annual layer thickness corresponded well with the results of an independent glaciochemical interpretation of the core. Individual annual cycles in image brightness were then identified by using OVM results to apply a depth-varying low-pass filter and fitting a second-order polynomial to a locally detrended neighborhood. The resulting map of annual cycles agreed to within 1% of the overall annual count of the glaciochemical interpretation. Agreement on the presence of specific annual layer features was 96%. It was also shown that the MOCOM parameter optimization could calibrate the image-based results to match directly the date of a specific volcanic marker.
A two-dimensional array of electrical conductivity measurements (ECM) has been used to image the acidity of the Siple Dome (Antarctica) ice core in a vertical plane. Annual layering and possible stratigraphic discontinuities are apparent. A brief disruption to the chemical stratigraphy is detected at 680 m. Below 800 m, weaker layering occurs and is interpreted as the result of post-depositional migration of chemical species. This technique provides a way to observe the horizontal continuity of chemical layers in an ice core and identify some types of flow irregularity.
The Holocene portion of the Siple Dome (Antarctica) ice core was dated by interpreting the electrical, visual and chemical properties of the core. The data were interpreted manually and with a computer algorithm. The algorithm interpretation was adjusted to be consistent with atmospheric methane stratigraphic ties to the GISP2 (Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2) ice core, 10Be stratigraphic ties to the dendrochronology 14 C record and the dated volcanic stratigraphy. The algorithm interpretation is more consistent and better quantified than the tedious and subjective manual interpretation.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Alcohol consumption perturbs the normal intestinal microbial communities (alcohol dysbiosis). To begin to investigate the relationship between alcohol-mediated dysbiosis and host defense we developed an alcohol dysbiosis fecal adoptive transfer model, which allows us to isolate the host immune response to a pathogenic challenge at a distal organ (ie, the lung). This model system allowed us to determine whether the host immune responses to Klebsiella pneumoniae are altered by ethanol-associated dysbiosis, independent of alcohol use. We hypothesized that alcohol-induced changes in intestinal microbial communities would impair pulmonary host defenses against K. pneumoniae. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Mice were treated with a cocktail of antibiotics daily for 2 weeks. Microbiota-depleted mice were then recolonized by gavage for 3-days with intestinal microbiota from ethanol-fed or pair-fed animals. Following recolonization groups of mice were sacrificed prior to and 48 hours post respiratory infection with K. pneumoniae. We then assessed susceptibility to Klebsiella infection by determining colony counts for pathogen burden in the lungs. We also determined lung and intestinal immunology, intestinal permeability, as well as, liver damage and inflammation. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We found that increased susceptibility to K. pneumoniae is, in part, mediated by the intestinal microbiota, as animals recolonized with an alcohol-induced dysbiotic intestinal microbial community have significantly higher lung burdens of K. pneumoniae (5×104 CFU vs. 1×103 CFU) independent of EtOH. We also found that increased susceptibility in alcohol-dysbiosis recolonized animals was associated with a decrease in the recruitment and/or proliferation of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells (1.5×109 cells vs. 2.5×109 cells) in the lung following Klebsiella infection. However, there were increased numbers of T-cells in the intestinal tract following Klebsiella infection, which may suggest that T cells are being sequestered in the intestinal tract to the detriment of host defense in the lung. Interestingly, mice recolonized with an alcohol-dysbiotic microbiota had increased intestinal permeability as measured by increased levels of serum intestinal fatty acid binding protein (55 vs. 30 ng/mL). Alcohol-dysbiotic microbiota also increased liver steatosis (Oil Red-O staining) and liver inflammation (>2-fold expression of IL-17 and IL-23). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Our findings suggest that the commensal intestinal microbiota support mucosal host defenses against infectious agents by facilitating normal immune responses to pulmonary pathogens. Our data also suggest that increased intestinal permeability coupled with increased liver inflammation may impair the recruitment/proliferation of immune cells in the respiratory tract following infection. The role of the microbiota during host defense will be important areas of future research directed at understanding the effects of microbial dysbiosis in patients with AUDs.
On 1 December 2011 the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) Divide ice-core project reached its final depth of 3405 m. The WAIS Divide ice core is not only the longest US ice core to date, but is also the highest-quality deep ice core, including ice from the brittle ice zone, that the US has ever recovered. The methods used at WAIS Divide to handle and log the drilled ice, the procedures used to safely retrograde the ice back to the US National Ice Core Laboratory (NICL) and the methods used to process and sample the ice at the NICL are described and discussed.
St Andrews was of tremendous significance in medieval Scotland. Its importance remains readily apparent in the buildings which cluster the rocky promontory jutting out into the North Sea: the towers and walls of cathedral, castle and university provide reminders of the status and wealth of the city in the Middle Ages. As a centre of earthly and spiritual government, as the place of veneration forScotland's patron saint and as an ancient seat of learning, St Andrews was the ecclesiastical capital of Scotland. This volume provides the first full study of this special and multi-faceted centre throughout its golden age. The fourteen chapters use St Andrews as a focus for the discussion of multiple aspects of medieval life in Scotland. They examine church, spirituality, urban society andlearning in a specific context from the seventh to the sixteenth century, allowing for the consideration of St Andrews alongside other great religious and political centres of medieval Europe.
Michael Brown is Professor of Medieval Scottish History, University of St Andrews; Katie Stevenson is Keeper of Scottish History and Archaeology, National Museums Scotland and Senior Lecturer in Late Medieval History, University of St Andrews.
Contributors: Michael Brown, Ian Campbell, David Ditchburn, Elizabeth Ewan, Richard Fawcett, Derek Hall, Matthew Hammond, Julian Luxford, Roger Mason, Norman Reid, Bess Rhodes, Catherine Smith, Katie Stevenson, Simon Taylor, Tom Turpie.