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In this revised and updated edition of Hunt's classic textbook, Human Intelligence, two research experts explain how key scientific studies have revealed exciting information about what intelligence is, where it comes from, why there are individual differences, and what the prospects are for enhancing it. The topics are chosen based on the weight of evidence, allowing readers to evaluate what ideas and theories the data support. Topics include IQ testing, mental processes, brain imaging, genetics, population differences, sex, aging, and likely prospects for enhancing intelligence based on current scientific evidence. Readers will confront ethical issues raised by research data and learn how scientists pursue answers to basic and socially relevant questions about why intelligence is important in everyday life. Many of the answers will be surprising and stimulate readers to think constructively about their own views.
This new edition provides an accessible guide to advances in neuroscience research and what they reveal about intelligence. Compelling evidence shows that genetics plays a major role as intelligence develops from childhood, and that intelligence test scores correspond strongly to specific features of the brain assessed with neuroimaging. In detailed yet understandable language, Richard J. Haier explains cutting-edge techniques based on DNA and imaging of brain connectivity and function. He dispels common misconceptions – such as the belief that IQ tests are biased or meaningless. Readers will learn about the real possibility of dramatically enhancing intelligence and the positive implications this could have for education and social policy. The text also explores potential controversies surrounding neuro-poverty, neuro-socioeconomic status, and the morality of enhancing intelligence for everyone.
This handbook introduces the reader to the thought-provoking research on the neural foundations of human intelligence. Written for undergraduate or graduate students, practitioners, and researchers in psychology, cognitive neuroscience, and related fields, the chapters summarize research emerging from the rapidly developing neuroscience literature on human intelligence. The volume focusses on theoretical innovation and recent advances in the measurement, modelling, and characterization of the neurobiology of intelligence differences, especially from brain imaging studies. It summarizes fundamental issues in the characterization and measurement of general intelligence, and surveys multidisciplinary research consortia and large-scale data repositories for the study of general intelligence. A systematic review of neuroimaging methods for studying intelligence is provided, including structural and diffusion-weighted MRI techniques, functional MRI methods, and spectroscopic imaging of metabolic markers of intelligence.
Genetic studies provide a compelling story of gene influences on intelligence, and neuroimaging studies provide insights about relevant brain structure and function. Polygenetic scores based on DNA and brain connectivity patterns based on neuroimaging are beginning to show correlations with individual differences in intelligence. Imaging studies also provide insights on specific brain networks related to intelligence, especially the PFIT model. The concept of brain efficiency is now being explored at the network and the dendrite levels. As we push inexorably deeper into the brain from cortex to neurons to synapses, we are at the threshold of developing a molecular biology of intelligence based both on gene expression related to brain development and function, and on the cascades of neurobiological events at the neuron and synapse levels. As prediction advances and the biological mechanisms underlying intelligence are identified, a major step will be manipulation of those mechanisms to enhance intelligence. That is why the study of intelligence has never been more exciting or important.