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Autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysregulation might be relevant to the pathophysiology of fatigue and cognitive impairment in depression and perhaps should be considered when making prescribing decisions.
To determine the relationship of self-reported ANS symptoms with fatigue, cognition and prescribed medication in people with a diagnosis of depression, in comparators without depression but with other mental health, neurodevelopmental or neurodegenerative disorders (active controls) and in healthy controls.
Cross-sectional analysis of an opportunistic sample from England. Self-reported data were collected on demographics, diagnosis, medication, ANS symptoms (Composite Autonomic Symptom Scale-31, COMPASS-31) and fatigue (Visual Analogue Scale for Fatigue, VAS-F). A subsample completed cognitive tests (THINC-it), including the subjective Perceived Deficits Questionnaire five-item version (PDQ-5). Spearman's correlation and mediation models were used to explore the relationship between COMPASS-31, VAS-F and PDQ-5 scores.
Data were obtained for 3345 participants, 22% with depression. The depression group had significantly (P < 0.01) more severe autonomic dysregulation as measured by COMPASS-31 scores (median 30) than active (median 23) and healthy controls (median 10). The depression group had significantly higher symptom severity (P < 0.01) than both control groups on the VAS-F and PDQ-5. Overall, there was a significantly positive correlation (P < 0.01) between COMPASS-31, VAS-F scores (Spearman's rho rs = 0.44) and PDQ-5 scores (rs = 0.56). COMPASS-31 scores mediated greater symptom severity on the VAS-F and PDQ-5 for those with depression. COMPASS-31 scores remained significantly different between the depression group and both control groups independently of medication.
People with a diagnosis of depression report worse fatigue and cognition than active and healthy comparators; this appears to be mediated by ANS dysregulation.
Neuropsychiatric disorders are common in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS) with about 25% of affected individuals developing schizophrenia spectrum disorders by young adulthood. Longitudinal evaluation of psychosis spectrum features and neurocognition can establish developmental trajectories and impact on functional outcome.
157 youth with 22q11DS were assessed longitudinally for psychopathology focusing on psychosis spectrum symptoms, neurocognitive performance and global functioning. We contrasted the pattern of positive and negative psychosis spectrum symptoms and neurocognitive performance differentiating those with more prominent Psychosis Spectrum symptoms (PS+) to those without prominent psychosis symptoms (PS−).
We identified differences in the trajectories of psychosis symptoms and neurocognitive performance between the groups. The PS+ group showed age associated increase in symptom severity, especially negative symptoms and general nonspecific symptoms. Correspondingly, their level of functioning was worse and deteriorated more steeply than the PS− group. Neurocognitive performance was generally comparable in PS+ and PS− groups and demonstrated a similar age-related trajectory. However, worsening executive functioning distinguished the PS+ group from PS− counterparts. Notably, of the three executive function measures examined, only working memory showed a significant difference between the groups in rate of change. Finally, structural equation modeling showed that neurocognitive decline drove the clinical change.
Youth with 22q11DS and more prominent psychosis features show worsening of symptoms and functional decline driven by neurocognitive decline, most related to executive functions and specifically working memory. The results underscore the importance of working memory in the developmental progression of psychosis.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in shortages of personal protective equipment (PPE), underscoring the urgent need for simple, efficient, and inexpensive methods to decontaminate masks and respirators exposed to severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We hypothesized that methylene blue (MB) photochemical treatment, which has various clinical applications, could decontaminate PPE contaminated with coronavirus.
The 2 arms of the study included (1) PPE inoculation with coronaviruses followed by MB with light (MBL) decontamination treatment and (2) PPE treatment with MBL for 5 cycles of decontamination to determine maintenance of PPE performance.
MBL treatment was used to inactivate coronaviruses on 3 N95 filtering facepiece respirator (FFR) and 2 medical mask models. We inoculated FFR and medical mask materials with 3 coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, and we treated them with 10 µM MB and exposed them to 50,000 lux of white light or 12,500 lux of red light for 30 minutes. In parallel, integrity was assessed after 5 cycles of decontamination using multiple US and international test methods, and the process was compared with the FDA-authorized vaporized hydrogen peroxide plus ozone (VHP+O3) decontamination method.
Overall, MBL robustly and consistently inactivated all 3 coronaviruses with 99.8% to >99.9% virus inactivation across all FFRs and medical masks tested. FFR and medical mask integrity was maintained after 5 cycles of MBL treatment, whereas 1 FFR model failed after 5 cycles of VHP+O3.
MBL treatment decontaminated respirators and masks by inactivating 3 tested coronaviruses without compromising integrity through 5 cycles of decontamination. MBL decontamination is effective, is low cost, and does not require specialized equipment, making it applicable in low- to high-resource settings.
At the 2003 Sydney IAU meeting, Marion Schmitz (Caltech, USA) took over the chair of the Commission 5 Working Group Designations, succeeding Helene Dickel. The Working Group Designations of IAU Commission 5 clarifies existing astronomical nomenclature and helps astronomers avoid potential problems when designating their sources. The most important function of WG Designations during the period 2003-2005 was overseeing the IAU REGISTRY FOR ACRONYMS (for newly discovered astronomical sources of radiation: see the website <http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/DicForm>) which is sponsored by the WG and operated by the Centre de Données de Strasbourg (CDS). The Clearing House, a subgroup of the WG, screens the submissions for accuracy and conformity to the IAU Recommendations for Nomenclature (<http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/iau-spec.html>). From its beginning in 1997 through August 2006, there have been 132 submissions and 111 acceptances. Attempts to register asterisms, common star names, and suspected variable stars were rejected. The past three years saw 61 acronyms submitted with 50 of them being accepted. (GIRL - yes; WOMEN - no).
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