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Recent observations with the Australia Telescope reveal that the elliptical galaxy NGC 5266 has a disk like structure of neutral hydrogen extending as far as almost 10 Re which approximatively lies along the galaxy's major axis, at 65° apart from the inner minor–axis dust lane (Varnas et al 1987). From the present data is not clear whether the HI structure and the dust lane are two distinct disks or a single warped structure. The regularity of the velocity field of the HI structure allow us to use it as a probe of the potential of NGC 5266. The velocity curve along the major axis is flat till the last measured point (rmax ~ 10′) at Vrot = 200km/s. Assuming that the gas in moving in circular orbits, we can derive the mass of the galaxy inside to this radius. The mass–to–light ratio M/LB rises from about 3 in the central regions to 12 at 9 Re (D = 57.6 Mpc), thus indicating that NGC 5266 is embedded in a dark massive halo. Moreover the representative point (cumulative M/LB within the last measured point) of NGC 5266 in the diagram log(M/LB) – log(Re) falls well within the region characteristic of spiral galaxies (Figure 2, Bertola et al. 1993), as do ellipticals previously studied in HI, thus reinforcing the suggestion (Bertola et al. 1993) of a parallel behaviour of the dark matter in elliptical and spiral galaxies.
There is some evidence from earlier studies that the two sources 0235 — 197 and 1203 + 043 exhibit low frequency (< 1 GHz) variability. This work shows that both sources have linear polarizations, if any, below the detection limits at 320 MHz, so we cannot explain the variability as being due to instrumental polarization effects as has been suggested for 3C159. Refractive scintillation may be the cause of the variability in 0235—197. The radio source 1203+043 lacks any bright compact component thereby ruling out a refractive scintillation mechanism for its variability. Consequently, it is possible that claims of variability in this source are spurious. However, the 320 MHz VLA observations show that 1203+043 has an ‘X'-shaped radio structure.
We present preliminary results of a multifrequency and multiresolution study carried out with the Australia Telescope Compact Array for nine of the ten extended radio galaxies located in the merging cluster complexes A3558 and A3528, at the centre of the Shapley Concentration. We found that 5 out of the 9 extended radio galaxies are active radio galaxies, i.e. they have a clear active radio nucleus coincident with the central region of the associated optical galaxy, radio jets and extended lobes; the remaining four lack an obvious radio nucleus, have a very diffuse and amorphous morphology and exhibit peculiar spectral properties. We call these radio sources as remnants and propose that they are (a) either radio galaxies where the nuclear activity has ceased; or (b) regions where pre-existing electrons have been reaccelerated as consequence of shocks due to cluster mergers.
We present a summary of our recent results on gas outflows in radio galaxies. Fast outflows (up to 2000 km s−1) have been detected both in ionized and neutral gas. The latter is particularly surprising as it shows that, despite the extremely energetic phenomena occurring near an AGN, some of the outflowing gas remains, or becomes again, neutral. These results are giving new and important insights on the physical conditions of the gaseous medium around an AGN.
Twenty-two powerful radio galaxies have been searched for HI absorption. We find the highest probability of detecting HI in absorption among narrow-line compact (or small) galaxies or galaxies with indication of richer interstellar medium (i.e. with ongoing or recent star-formation). We discuss the difficulty in the interpretation of the origin of the HI absorption due to the uncertainty in the systemic velocity of the galaxies.
We have collected multi-waveband (radio, optical and X-ray) data for a complete sample of southern radio sources. The sample includes 88 objects selected from the Wall & Peacock (1985) catalogue that is complete down to S2.7GHz = 2 Jy, δ < 10° and the z < 0.7. This database (Tadhunter et al. (1993), Morganti et ai. (1993), and Siebert et al. these Proceedings) provides an important tool for investigating the nature of anisotropies and orientation effects in AGN and the physical causes of the correlation between their emission at different frequencies.
We investigate the X–ray properties of a complete sample of 88 radio sources derived from the Wall & Peacock 2–Jy sample. We find that Lx correlates well with core radio luminosity for all object classes, whereas the Lx – Ltotal is probably introduced by sample selection effects. Further, evidence for an anisotropic X–ray component in broad line radio galaxies is reported. A full description of the results will be given elsewhere (Siebert et al. 1996).
Extended emission line regions aligned with the radio axis are a common feature of powerful radio galaxies and there is much interest in the origin of the extended gas and excitation mechanism. One model that can produce this alignment is photoionization by anisotropic nuclear continuum radiation. However, strong evidence exists, especially in high redshift radio galaxies, for powerful interactions between the relativistic radio jets and the ISM/IGM. Here we present the results of our study of the southern radio galaxy PKS 2250–41 (z = 0.308). This object is the most spectacular found in a sample of southern radio sources studied by Tadhunter et al. (1993) and it displays particularly clear evidence for such an interaction (Tadhunter et al. 1994; Dickson et al. 1995).
We observed the cluster of galaxies A3556 (< v > = 14300 km/sec), belonging to the supercluster of galaxies known as the Shapley Concentration (Bardelli et al., 1994, MNRAS 267, 255, and references therein), with the Australia Telescope Compact Array. Our observations took place in the continuum band at 20 cm with the configurations 1.5D and 6C, and at 20 cm and 13 cm in the configuration 6A, for a total of 12×3 hours, with a resolution ranging from ≃ 6″ to ≃ 40″. We observed a sky region of ≃ 2° × 1° around the cluster center taking advance of the mosaicing technique developed ATNF.
Two important factors for understanding the physical nature of compact steep spectrum (CSS) radio sources are determining the correct radio morphological classification of these objects together with their characteristics in wavebands different from the radio (Fanti et al. 1995, A&A, 302, 317). Seven CSS sources (linear dimensions < 30kpc for Ho = 50 kms–1Mpc–1 and α > 0.5, S ≃ v–α) have been found in a complete sample of strong southern radio sources. This group of CSS sources is particularly interesting because some optical and X-ray information is already available as part of a more general study of southern radio sources (Morganti et al. & Siebert et al. these Proceedings). The spectra of all the sources were presented in Tadhunter et al. (1993, MNRAS, 263, 999.) Here we present VLBI observations for three of these sources (0252-71, 1306-09 and 1814-63). The remaining four have already been imaged with VLBI (King et al. these Proceedings).
We present HI images for the dust-lane elliptical galaxy NGC 5266. This galaxy contains more than 1010M☉ of HI and our data show that the neutral hydrogen extends to ∼8 arcmin each side of the nucleus, or eight times the optical half-light radius Re. Surprisingly, the outer HI gas extends almost orthogonally to the optical dust lane. The overall HI kinematics can be successfully modelled by assuming that the gas hes in two orthogonal planes—in the plane of the dust lane in the central parts and perpendicular to this in the outer regions. The large amount of neutral gas observed and the HI morphology suggest that this object may have formed from the merger of two gas rich spiral galaxies. If so, it probably represents a relatively old merger remnant since most of the HI appears settled. The mass-to-light ratio has also been derived, with evidence for a dark matter halo around this galaxy.
Recent observations with the Australia Telescope Compact Array show that the elliptical galaxy NGC 5266 has a disk of neutral hydrogen extending to almost 10Re. This HI disk lies along the galaxy’s major axis, at right angles to the inner minor-axis dust lane. The geometry and kinematics of the gas will allow us to determine both the intrinsic shape of the stellar galaxy and the mass distribution. The mass-to-light ratio M/LB rises from about 2 in the central regions to ~12 at 9Re (H0 = 50km s−1 Mpc−1).
Radio, optical and X-ray observations of a complete flux-limited sample of southern bright radio sources have been analysed to investigate beaming and orientation effects in the different wavebands. We conclude that, in addition to beamed optical and radio components, there is evidence for anisotropic X-ray emission.
IC 5063 (PKS 2048–572) is a nearby (z = 0.0110) early-type galaxy hosting a Seyfert 2 nucleus. In broad-band optical images, it shows a complex dust lane, while the ionized gas extends up to ~ 20 kpc and has an unusual X-shaped structure (Danziger et al. 1981, Colina et al. 1990). A faint, very broad emissionline component has been detected (Bergeron et al. 1983, Colina et al. 1991) together with an off-nuclear broad emission-line region (Wagner & Appenzeller 1989). Broad Hα emission was also detected in polarized light (Inglis et al. 1993). Thus, it is likely that this galaxy has a broad-line region which is obscured from our direct view (while the broad-line radiation is scattered into our line of sight by scatterers outside the obscuring regions). The radio luminosity of IC 5063 is nearly two orders of magnitude larger than typical values for nearby Seyferts (Ulvestad & Wilson 1984), making it one of the strongest radio sources found in Seyfert galaxies (1.3 Jy at 1.4 GHz, i.e., 2 × 1023W Hz−1 for H0 = 50 km s−1 Mpc−1). Its H I content is also very high: Danziger et al. (1981) found 1.0 × 1010M⊙, which gives MHI/LB = 0.4, quite anomalous for this type of object.
The tight correlations observed between galaxies and their SMBH provides compelling evidence that the evolution of the galaxy and its central black hole are strongly linked. This is generally attributed to feedback mechanisms which, according to simulations, often take the form of outflows of gas, quenching star formation in the host galaxy and halting accretion onto the central black hole. While there are a number of plausible ways that outflows could be produced, recent results have shown that in some cases radio jets could be responsible for driving fast outflows of gas. One such example is seen in the nearby radio galaxy 3C293. In this talk I will present results from JVLA radio observations where we detect fast outflows (~1200 km/s) of neutral gas which are being driven by the radio-jet approximately 0.5 kpc from the central core, providing direct evidence for jet-ISM interaction. This is accompanied with recent IFU observations showing that ionised gas outflows are also being driven by the radio jet. Pinpointing the location of these outflows enables us to derive crucial parameters, such as the mass outflow rates and kinetic energy involved, which we can compare to predictions from galaxy evolution simulations.
We present new Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) Hi absorption and Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) continuum observations of the active galactic nucleus (AGN)-driven molecular outflow candidate NGC 1266. Although other well-known systems with molecular outflows may be driven by star formation in a central molecular disk, the molecular mass outflow rate reported in Alatalo et al. (2011) in NGC 1266 of 13 M⊙ year−1 exceeds star formation rate estimates from a variety of tracers. This suggests that an additional energy source, such as an AGN, may play a significant role in powering the outflow. Our high spatial resolution Hi absorption data reveal compact absorption against the radio continuum core co-located with the putative AGN, and the presence of a blueshifted spectral component re-affirms that gas is indeed flowing out of the system. Our VLBA observations at 1.65 GHz reveal one continuum source within the densest portion of the molecular gas, with a diameter d < 8 mas (1.2 pc), a radio power Prad = 1.48 × 1020 W Hz−1, and a brightness temperature Tb > 1.5 × 107 K that is most consistent with an AGN origin. The radio continuum energetics implied by the compact VLBA source, as well as archival VLA continuum observations at lower spatial resolution, further support the possibility that the AGN in NGC 1266 could be driving the molecular outflow. These findings suggest that even low-level AGNs, with supermassive black hole masses similar to Sgr A*, may be able to launch massive outflows in their host galaxies.
We are performing a multi-frequency radio analysis of a well-known deep field: the Lockman Hole, which is one of the best studied sky regions in different wavebands. This will provide us with important complementary data (for example redshifts) to the radio data, allowing us to characterize the physical and evolutionary properties of the various classes of sources composing the faint radio population. LOFAR imaging of the Lockman Hole can play an important role in this project, allowing, for the very first time, to observe the sub-mJy source population at very low frequencies (30-200 MHz), where self-absorption phenomena are expected to be very important. Here we present some preliminary results.
We have obtained long slit spectra of 3C 67 and 3C 277.1 with the HST/STIS spectrograph. We present our preliminary results on the diagnostic emission line ratios along the radio source axes in 3C 67 and 3C 277.1.