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Despite advances in medical care, we still come across pregnancy in Eisenmenger syndrome. Eisenmenger syndrome represents the severe end of the spectrum for disease in pulmonary artery hypertension associated with CHD. Due to very high maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, pregnancy is contraindicated among these women. Current guidelines also recommend that the women who become pregnant should opt for early termination of pregnancy. Here, we present a case series of 11 women of Eisenmenger syndrome and their pregnancy outcome.
It was a retrospective analysis of 12 pregnancies among 11 women with Eisenmenger syndrome who were managed in a tertiary care referral centre of Northern India.
The mean age of these women was 28 ± 4 years (range 22 to 36 years). Almost 80% of them (9/11) were diagnosed with Eisenmenger syndrome during pregnancy. The commonest cardiac lesion was Ventricular Septal defect (54.5%) followed by Atrial Septal defect (27.3%) and Patent Ductus arteriosus (9.1%). Only three women opted for medical termination of pregnancy, rest eight continued the pregnancy or presented late. Pregnancy complications found include pre-eclampsia (50%), abruption (22%), and fetal growth retardation (62.5%). There were three maternal deaths (mortality rate 27%) in postpartum period.
This case series highlights the delay in diagnosis and treatment of CHD despite improvement in medical care. Women with Eisenmenger syndrome require effective contraception, preconceptional counselling, early termination of pregnancy, and multidisciplinary care.
Drug-induced movement disorders (DIMDs) form an important subgroup of secondary movement disorders, which despite conferring a significant iatrogenic burden, tend to be under-recognized and inappropriately managed.
We aimed to look into phenomenology, predictors of reversibility, and its impact on the quality of life of DIMD patients.
We conducted the study in the Department of Neurology at a tertiary-care centre in India. The institutional ethics-committee approved the study. We assessed 55-consecutive DIMD patients at presentation to our movement disorder clinic. Subsequently, they followed up to evaluate improvement in severity-scales (UPDRS, UDRS, BARS, AIMS) and quality of life (EuroQol-5D-5L). Wilcoxan-signed-rank test compared the scales at presentation and follow-up. Binary-logistic-regrerssion revealed the independent predictors of reversibility.
Fourteen patients (25.45%) had acute-subacute DIMD and 41 (74.55%) had tardive DIMD. Tardive-DIMD occurred more commonly in the elderly (age 50.73±16.92 years, p<0.001). Drug-induced-Parkinsonism (DIP) was the most common MD, followed by tardivedyskinesia. Risperidone and levosulpiride were the commonest culprit drugs. Patients in both the groups showed a statistically significant response to drug-dose reduction /withdrawal based on follow-up assessment on clinical-rating-scales and quality of life scores (EQ-5D-5L). DIMD was reversible in 71.42% of acute-subacute DIMD and 24.40% of patients with chronic DIMD (p=0.001). Binary-logistic-regression analysis showed acute-subacute DIMDs and DIP as independent predictors of reversibility.
DIP is the commonest and often reversible drug-induced movement disorder. Levosulpiride is notorious for causing DIMD in the elderly, requiring strict pharmacovigilance.
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