Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine aim to achieve functional restoration of tissue or cells damaged through disease, aging, or trauma. Advancement of tissue engineering requires innovation in the field of three-dimensional scaffolding and functionalization with bioactive molecules. Nanotechnology offers advanced materials with patterned nano-morphologies for cell growth and different molecular substrates that can support cell survival and functions. Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) can control intracellular as well as extracellular reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Recent findings suggest that nanoceria can enhance long-term cell survival, enable cell migration and proliferation, and promote stem cell differentiation. Moreover, the self-regenerative property of nanoceria permits a small dose to remain catalytically active for an extended time. This review summarizes the possibilities and applications of nanoceria in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.