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Ruling the World tells the story of how the largest and most diverse empire in history was governed, everywhere and all at once. Focusing on some of the most tumultuous years of Queen Victoria's reign, Alan Lester, Kate Boehme and Peter Mitchell adopt an entirely new perspective to explain how the men in charge of the British Empire sought to manage simultaneous events across the globe. Using case studies including Canada, South Africa, the Caribbean, Australia, India and Afghanistan, they reveal how the empire represented a complex series of trade-offs between Parliament's, colonial governors', colonists' and colonised peoples' agendas. They also highlight the compromises that these men made as they adapted their ideals of freedom, civilization and liberalism to the realities of an empire imposed through violence and governed in the interests of Britons.
We present a velocity of galactic outflows in star-forming galaxies at the highest redshift, z ∼ 6, so far studied with metal absorption lines. Absorption-line studies of galactic outflows need well-determined redshifts, but there are few strong emission lines in the observed-frame optical spectra of galaxies at high redshifts. In this work, we use the systemic redshifts determined by the ALMA [CII]158 μm emission lines. The sample consists of seven Lyman break galaxies at 5.1 < z < 5.7 whose Keck/DEIMOS and ALMA data are available in the archive. The outflow maximum velocity (νmax) is estimated by a fitting of line profiles to metal absorption lines in a composite spectrum. We find that νmax monotonically increases from z ∼ 0 to 6 and that νmax tightly correlates with the halo circular velocity estimated from the stellar mass.
The Southern African Radiocarbon Database (SARD) is a new online, open-access database of published radiocarbon dates from southern African archaeological contexts. Compatible with the calibration, Bayesian modelling and mapping functionality of the OxCal software, the SARD will greatly assist in the documentation and analysis of chronological trends across the subcontinent. This article introduces the database and presents two case studies that demonstrate its utility and its integration with OxCal, comparing the temporal distribution of radiocarbon dates in two archaeologically well-investigated regions, and assessing the timing of Middle to Later Stone Age technological developments across the African subcontinent.
The late Miocene is a time of strong environmental change in SW Asia. Himalayan foreland stable isotope data show a shift in the dominant vegetation of the flood plains away from trees and shrubs towards more C4 grasslands at a time when oceanic upwelling increased along the Oman margin. We present integrated geochemical and colour spectral records from International Ocean Discovery Program Site U1456 in the eastern Arabian Sea to reconstruct changing chemical weathering and erosion, as well as relative humidity during this climatic transition. Increasing hematite/goethite ratios derived from spectral data are consistent with long-term drying after c. 7.7 Ma. Times of dry conditions are largely associated with weaker chemical alteration measured by K/Rb and reduced coarse clastic flux, constrained by Si/Al and Zr/Al. A temporary phase of increased humidity from 6.3 to 5.95 Ma shows a reversal to stronger weathering and erosion. Wetter conditions can result in both more and less alteration due to the nonlinear relationship between weathering rates, precipitation and sediment transport times. Trends in relative aridity do not follow existing palaeoceanographic records and are not apparently linked to changes in Tibetan or Himalayan elevation, but more closely correlate with global cooling. An apparent opposing trend in the humidity evolution in the Indus compared to southern China, as tracked by spectrally estimated hematite/goethite, likely reflects differences in the topography in the Indus compared to the Pearl River drainage basins, as well as the generally wetter climate in southern China.
After five positive randomized controlled trials showed benefit of mechanical thrombectomy in the management of acute ischemic stroke with emergent large-vessel occlusion, a multi-society meeting was organized during the 17th Congress of the World Federation of Interventional and Therapeutic Neuroradiology in October 2017 in Budapest, Hungary. This multi-society meeting was dedicated to establish standards of practice in acute ischemic stroke intervention aiming for a consensus on the minimum requirements for centers providing such treatment. In an ideal situation, all patients would be treated at a center offering a full spectrum of neuroendovascular care (a level 1 center). However, for geographical reasons, some patients are unable to reach such a center in a reasonable period of time. With this in mind, the group paid special attention to define recommendations on the prerequisites of organizing stroke centers providing medical thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke, but not for other neurovascular diseases (level 2 centers). Finally, some centers will have a stroke unit and offer intravenous thrombolysis, but not any endovascular stroke therapy (level 3 centers). Together, these level 1, 2, and 3 centers form a complete stroke system of care. The multi-society group provides recommendations and a framework for the development of medical thrombectomy services worldwide.
The current study examined the pattern of neurocognitive impairments in a community-recruited sample of clinical high-risk (CHR) participants and established relationships with psychosocial functioning.
CHR-participants (n = 108), participants who did not fulfil CHR-criteria (CHR-negatives) (n = 42) as well as a group of healthy controls (HCs) (n = 55) were recruited. CHR-status was assessed using the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States (CAARMS) and the Schizophrenia Proneness Instrument, Adult Version (SPI-A). The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia Battery (BACS) as well as tests for emotion recognition, working memory and attention were administered. In addition, role and social functioning as well as premorbid adjustment were assessed.
CHR-participants were significantly impaired on the Symbol-Coding and Token-Motor task and showed a reduction in total BACS-scores. Moreover, CHR-participants were characterised by prolonged response times (RTs) in emotion recognition as well as by reductions in both social and role functioning, GAF and premorbid adjustments compared with HCs. Neurocognitive impairments in emotion recognition accuracy, emotion recognition RT, processing speed and motor speed were associated with several aspects of functioning explaining between 4% and 12% of the variance.
The current data obtained from a community sample of CHR-participants highlight the importance of dysfunctions in motor and processing speed and emotion recognition RT. Moreover, these deficits were found to be related to global, social and role functioning, suggesting that neurocognitive impairments are an important aspect of sub-threshold psychotic experiences and a possible target for therapeutic interventions.
Motivated by the success of wavepackets in modelling the noise from subsonic and perfectly expanded supersonic jets, we apply the wavepacket model to imperfectly expanded supersonic jets. Recent studies with subsonic jets have demonstrated the importance of capturing the ‘jitter’ of wavepackets in order to correctly predict the intensity of far-field sound. Wavepacket jitter may be statistically represented using a two-point coherence function; accurate prediction of noise requires identification of this coherence function. Following the analysis of Cavalieri & Agarwal (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 748, 2014. pp. 399–415), we extend their methodology to model the acoustic sources of broadband shock-associated noise in imperfectly expanded supersonic jets using cross-spectral densities of the turbulent and shock-cell quantities. The aim is to determine the relationship between wavepacket coherence-decay and far-field broadband shock-associated noise, using the model as a vehicle to explore the flow mechanisms at work. Unlike the subsonic case where inclusion of coherence decay amplifies the sound pressure level over the whole acoustic spectrum, we find that it does not play such a critical role in determining the peak sound amplitude for shock-cell noise. When higher-order shock-cell modes are used to reconstruct the acoustic spectrum at higher frequencies, however, the inclusion of a jittering wavepacket is necessary. These results suggest that the requirement for coherence decay identified in prior broadband shock-associated noise (BBSAN) models is in reality the statistical signature of jittering wavepackets. The results from this modelling approach suggest that nonlinear jittering effects of wavepackets need to be included in dynamic models for broadband shock-associated noise.
To understand why autistic people are misperceived in the way Jaswal & Akhtar suggest, we should embrace concepts like the “double empathy problem” and camouflaging and recognize the negative consequences these have for mental health in autism. Moreover, we need to value expertise from experience so that autistic people have a voice and indeed a stake in research into autism.
Our understanding of Saturn’s magnetosphere has been drastically changed over the last decade, since the arrival of Cassini, the first spacecraft to go into orbit around the planet. The trajectory of Cassini allowed the Saturnian magnetosphere to be studied both in the equatorial plane and at high latitudes, in a wide range of radial distances and local time sectors. This chapter reviews the current picture of Saturn’s global magnetospheric configuration and describes the local fields and particle properties in key regions like the radiation belts and the inner, middle and outer magnetosphere. The moon Enceladus, deep in the magnetosphere, is the major source of neutrals and charged particles in the magnetosphere, and in this chapter we describe how the particles are generated, transported and lost within the highly dynamic magnetosphere. We also describe how both particles and fields in the Saturnian magnetosphere vary with time, both on shorter timescales and with Saturn’s seasons. We highlight some of the most recent findings and discoveries, including a formerly unknown electric field oriented in the noon-midnight direction. Finally, we discuss magnetospheric measurements planned for the final sequence of the Cassini mission in 2017, called the “Grand Finale,” along with a list of open questions to be solved by future missions.
Increasing evidence indicates that gut microbiota may influence colorectal cancer risk. Diet, particularly fibre intake, may modify gut microbiota composition, which may affect cancer risk. We investigated the relationship between dietary fibre intake and gut microbiota in adults. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we assessed gut microbiota in faecal samples from 151 adults in two independent study populations: National Cancer Institute (NCI), n 75, and New York University (NYU), n 76. We calculated energy-adjusted fibre intake based on FFQ. For each study population with adjustment for age, sex, race, BMI and smoking, we evaluated the relationship between fibre intake and gut microbiota community composition and taxon abundance. Total fibre intake was significantly associated with overall microbial community composition in NYU (P=0·008) but not in NCI (P=0·81). In a meta-analysis of both study populations, higher fibre intake tended to be associated with genera of class Clostridia, including higher abundance of SMB53 (fold change (FC)=1·04, P=0·04), Lachnospira (FC=1·03, P=0·05) and Faecalibacterium (FC=1·03, P=0·06), and lower abundance of Actinomyces (FC=0·95, P=0·002), Odoribacter (FC=0·95, P=0·03) and Oscillospira (FC=0·96, P=0·06). A species-level meta-analysis showed that higher fibre intake was marginally associated with greater abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (FC=1·03, P=0·07) and lower abundance of Eubacterium dolichum (FC=0·96, P=0·04) and Bacteroides uniformis (FC=0·97, P=0·05). Thus, dietary fibre intake may impact gut microbiota composition, particularly class Clostridia, and may favour putatively beneficial bacteria such as F. prausnitzii. These findings warrant further understanding of diet–microbiota relationships for future development of colorectal cancer prevention strategies.
Experimental evidence is provided to demonstrate that the upstream-travelling waves in two jets screeching in the A1 and A2 modes are not free-stream acoustic waves, but rather waves with support within the jet. Proper orthogonal decomposition is used to educe the coherent fluctuations associated with jet screech from a set of randomly sampled velocity fields. A streamwise Fourier transform is then used to isolate components with positive and negative phase speeds. The component with negative phase speed is shown, by comparison with a vortex-sheet model, to resemble the upstream-travelling jet wave first studied by Tam & Hu (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 201, 1989, pp. 447–483). It is further demonstrated that screech tones are only observed over the frequency range where this upstream-travelling wave is propagative.
In late 1837 and early 1838 the British imperial government was preparing for an empire-wide transition from bonded to nominally free labor. This article builds upon recent scholarship that promotes a holistic, global approach to this transition, by narrowing the temporal frame and expanding the spatial. We emphasize interconnectivity and simultaneity rather than chronological succession, and we analyze the governance, rather than the experience, of this transition. Our approach is founded upon analysis of correspondence passing from every British colonial site through the Colonial Office in 1837–1838. We suggest that this hub of imperial government sought to reconcile the persistence of different conditions in each colony with the pursuit of three overarching policy objectives: redistributing labor globally; distinguishing between the moral debts owed to different kinds of bonded labor, and managing tradeoffs between security, economy, and morality. We conclude that the governance of the transition to free labor is best conceived as an assemblage of material and expressive elements of different spatial scales, whose interactions were complex and indeterminate. Through these specific governmental priorities and a particular communications infrastructure, these elements were brought into critical alignment at this moment to shape a significant transition in relations between people across the world.
In a recent Round the Corner, Mitchell commented on a Cochrane Review of exercise therapy for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). One of the trials included in that review, and discussed by Mitchell, was the PACE trial. In this month's Round the Corner we are publishing a response we received from authors of the PACE trial (Chalder, White & Sharpe), together with Mitchell's reply. Ed.
There is a need for clinical tools to identify cultural issues in diagnostic assessment.
To assess the feasibility, acceptability and clinical utility of the DSM-5 Cultural Formulation Interview (CFI) in routine clinical practice.
Mixed-methods evaluation of field trial data from six countries. The CFI was administered to diagnostically diverse psychiatric out-patients during a diagnostic interview. In post-evaluation sessions, patients and clinicians completed debriefing qualitative interviews and Likert-scale questionnaires. The duration of CFI administration and the full diagnostic session were monitored.
Mixed-methods data from 318 patients and 75 clinicians found the CFI feasible, acceptable and useful. Clinician feasibility ratings were significantly lower than patient ratings and other clinician-assessed outcomes. After administering one CFI, however, clinician feasibility ratings improved significantly and subsequent interviews required less time.
The CFI was included in DSM-5 as a feasible, acceptable and useful cultural assessment tool.
Rock art worldwide has proved extremely difficult to date directly. Here, the first radiocarbon dates for rock paintings in Botswana and Lesotho are presented, along with additional dates for Later Stone Age rock art in South Africa. The samples selected for dating were identified as carbon-blacks from short-lived organic materials, meaning that the sampled pigments and the paintings that they were used to produce must be of similar age. The results reveal that southern African hunter-gatherers were creating paintings on rockshelter walls as long ago as 5723–4420 cal BP in south-eastern Botswana: the oldest such evidence yet found in southern Africa.
The study aims to assess whether supplementation with the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 (HN001) can reduce the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled parallel trial was conducted in New Zealand (NZ) (Wellington and Auckland). Pregnant women with a personal or partner history of atopic disease were randomised at 14–16 weeks’ gestation to receive HN001 (6×109 colony-forming units) (n 212) or placebo (n 211) daily. GDM at 24–30 weeks was assessed using the definition of the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) (fasting plasma glucose ≥5·1 mmol/l, or 1 h post 75 g glucose level at ≥10 mmol/l or at 2 h ≥8·5 mmol/l) and NZ definition (fasting plasma glucose ≥5·5 mmol/l or 2 h post 75 g glucose at ≥9 mmol/l). All analyses were intention-to-treat. A total of 184 (87 %) women took HN001 and 189 (90 %) women took placebo. There was a trend towards lower relative rates (RR) of GDM (IADPSG definition) in the HN001 group, 0·59 (95 % CI 0·32, 1·08) (P=0·08). HN001 was associated with lower rates of GDM in women aged ≥35 years (RR 0·31; 95 % CI 0·12, 0·81, P=0·009) and women with a history of GDM (RR 0·00; 95 % CI 0·00, 0·66, P=0·004). These rates did not differ significantly from those of women without these characteristics. Using the NZ definition, GDM prevalence was significantly lower in the HN001 group, 2·1 % (95 % CI 0·6, 5·2), v. 6·5 % (95 % CI 3·5, 10·9) in the placebo group (P=0·03). HN001 supplementation from 14 to 16 weeks’ gestation may reduce GDM prevalence, particularly among older women and those with previous GDM.
The English spelling system has a variety of rules and exceptions, but both theoretical and empirical accounts have generally concluded that by about age 9 or 10, children master the morphological rule that regular plural nouns (e.g., socks) and third-person singular present verbs (e.g., lacks) are spelled with the inflectional ending –s. In three experiments, however, we found that when forced to rely exclusively on morphological cues, only a minority of primary school children, secondary school children, and even adults performed significantly above chance at choosing the appropriate spelling for novel words presented as inflected or uninflected nouns and verbs. Further, significantly above-chance performance was more common in adults who had attended school until age 18, compared to age 16. We conclude that many spellers, especially those who do not go on to tertiary education, never learn some simple morphological spelling rules, and instead rely on a store of individual word-specific spellings.