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We consider the scattering by a semi-infinite array of bodies of arbitrary geometry excited by an incident wave in the linear water-wave formulation (which reduces to the simpler case of Helmholtz scattering if the depth dependence can be removed). The theory presented here is extremely general, and we present example calculations for an array of floating elastic plates (a highly non-trivial scatterer). The solution method follows closely from the solution for point scatterers in a medium governed by Helmholtz's equation. We have made several extensions to this theory, considering water-wave scattering, allowing for bodies of arbitrary scattering geometry and showing how to include the effects of bound waves (called Rayleigh–Bloch waves in the water-wave context) in the formulation. We present results for scattering by arrays of cylinders that show the convergence of our methods and also some results for the case of scattering by floating elastic plates and fixed docks.
An algebraically exact solution to the problem of linear water-wave scattering by a periodic array of scatterers is presented in which the scatterers may be of arbitrary shape. The method of solution is based on an interaction theory in which the incident wave on each body from all the other bodies in the array is expressed in the respective local cylindrical eigenfunction expansion. We show how to calculate the slowly convergent terms efficiently which arise in the formulation and how to calculate the scattered field far from the array. The application to the problem of linear acoustic scattering by cylinders with arbitrary cross-section is also discussed. Numerical calculations are presented to show that our results agree with previous calculations. We present some computations for the case of fixed, rigid and elastic floating bodies of negligible draft concentrating on presenting the amplitudes of the scattered waves as functions of the incident angle.
We extend the finite-depth interaction theory of Kagemoto & Yue(1986) to water of infinite depth and bodies of arbitrary geometry. The sum over the discrete roots of the dispersion equation in the finite-depth theory becomes an integral in the infinite-depth theory. This means that the infinite dimensional diffraction transfer matrix in the finite-depth theory must be replaced by an integral operator. In the numerical solution of the equations, this integral operator is approximated by a sum and a linear system of equations is obtained. We also show how the calculations of the diffraction transfer matrix for bodies of arbitrary geometry developed by Goo & Yoshida (1990) can be extended to infinite depth, and how the diffraction transfer matrix for rotated bodies can be calculated easily. This interaction theory is applied to the wave forcing of multiple ice floes and a method to solve the full diffraction problem in this case is presented. Convergence studies comparing the interaction method with the full diffraction calculations and the finite- and infinite-depth interaction methods are carried out.
Maximum likelihood mixed stock analysis was used to identify the natal origin of immature loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) in a tropical developmental habitat in Caribbean Panamá. Approximately 65-70% of the loggerhead turtles in Chiriquí Lagoon originate from South Florida nesting beaches, and the other 30-35% originate from Mexico. Haplotype frequencies of the Chiriquí Lagoon loggerhead population are significantly different from those observed in the pelagic environment in the eastern Atlantic, and estimated nesting beach contributions to Chiriquí Lagoon are significantly different from values expected if recruitment were based solely on the size of nesting populations. These observations suggest that dispersal of loggerheads into benthic developmental habitats from the pelagic environment is not random. The occurrence of US and Mexican loggerheads in tropical developmental habitats has not been previously recognized. Exploitation and other mortality factors operating in the Caribbean area must be taken into account in demographic models and management plans for these two populations. This exploitation could be particularly important for the small, demographically vulnerable Mexican population and for other small populations for which no genetic data are currently available.
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