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Rationally higher population density is crucial for seeking a balance that meets lodging resistance and maximizes seed yield in mechanized direct-seeded winter canola. In this study, a split-plot experiment with two cultivars (Huayouza9 and Zhongshuang11) and eleven planting densities (12–105 plants m-2) was conducted in a two-season field experiment to evaluate the high planting density in this cropping system and improve its production efficiency. Seed yield noticeably increased in planting density up to 80 plants m-2 in Zhongshuang11 (2187 kg hm-2) and 60 plants m-2 in Huayouza9 (2943 kg hm-2). The seed yield of Huayouza9 did not differ significantly from the local target seed yield. Higher plant density curtailed the luxurious vegetative growth of individual canola plants at the density of no less than 60–80 plants m-2, and high seed yield was derived from the increased ratio of main raceme and branch seed weight in winter canola. An increase in plant densities contributed to the reinforced sunlight interception at the pod-filling stage, providing a larger canopy photosynthetic area for the rapid growth of more canola pods at higher densities (60–105 plants m-2). Lodging resistance and breaking resistance decreased sharply with the plant density increasing from 12 to 60 plants m-2 while remaining almost steady as it further increased from 60 to 105 plants m-2 for Huayouza9 and Zhongshuang11. Hence, the population density of 60 plants m-2 reached a balance between lodging resistance and maximized seed yield in mechanized direct-seeded winter canola in China.
This paper develops the estimation method of mean and covariance functions of functional data with additional covariate information. With the strength of both local linear smoothing modeling and general weighing scheme, we are able to explicitly characterize the mean and covariance functions with incorporating covariate for irregularly spaced and sparsely observed longitudinal data, as typically encountered in engineering technology or biomedical studies, as well as for functional data which are densely measured. Theoretically, we establish the uniform convergence rates of the estimators in the general weighing scheme. Monte Carlo simulation is conducted to investigate the finite-sample performance of the proposed approach. Two applications including the children growth data and white matter tract dataset obtained from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative study are also provided.
During its transition to a market economy, structural inequalities became increasingly apparent across China’s workforce, threatening social harmony. China’s 2008 Employment Contract Law, legislated amid policy debate, was intended to remedy these phenomena. We examine a crucial element of its remit: has its promotion of continuing contracts as against fixed-term employment contracts been effective? This is crucial for improving workers’ rights through secure employment. How have employers responded to this challenge to their prerogatives in terms of hiring and firing? We analysed data from 2007 and 2012 drawn from All-China Federation of Trade Unions surveys, which cover approximately 80,000 individuals. Using institutional theory, we discuss a variety of employer responses. We find that the Employment Contract Law has increased the likelihood of signing continuing contracts among migrant workers, employees in privately owned enterprises, and those with lower professional titles and who are short-term employees – all disadvantaged labour market categories previously. It has also significantly narrowed gaps regarding access to continuing contracts between these categories and matched advantaged ones. There is also evidence that some employers seek to avoid or sidestep compliance through cost-minimising worker engagement strategies.
The northern Alxa region is located in the central segment of the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt. Many controversies and deficiencies still exist regarding the magma source characteristics, petrogenesis and tectonic regimes during the late Palaeozoic – early Mesozoic period within this region. This study presents whole-rock compositions and zircon U–Pb and Lu–Hf isotopic data for three early Mesozoic I- and A-type granitic plutons occurring in the northern Alxa region. The Haerchaoenji and Chahanhada I-type granitoids yielded zircon 206Pb–238U ages of 245 ± 5 Ma and 245 ± 2 Ma, respectively. The variable positive zircon ϵHf(t) values between +1.8 and +11.8, with young TDM ages of 425–837 Ma, indicate that these I-type granitoids were mainly derived from juvenile crustal materials. The Wulantaolegai pluton has a zircon 206Pb–238U age of 237 ± 2 Ma and is classified as having high-K calc-alkaline A-type affinity. Furthermore, the positive zircon ϵHf(t) values of the Wulantaolegai granite range from +3.3 to +8.7 with young TDM ages of 545–778 Ma, suggesting the involvement of a juvenile crustal source as well. Furthermore, the major-element compositions of the Chahanhada and Wulantaolegai granites suggest the input of metasedimentary components. Geochemically, the Haerchaoenji and Chahanhada I-type granitoids show an arc affinity, while the Wulantaolegai granite exhibits a post-collisional affinity. However, with regional data, we suggest that the Haerchaoenji and Chahanhada I-type granitoids were also emplaced in a post-collisional setting, and the arc affinity was probably inherited from recycled subduction-related materials. These lines of evidence obtained in this study enable us to argue that the Palaeo-Asian Ocean in the central segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt closed before Middle Triassic time.
What are the various ways in which local governments in China accommodate migrants through housing policies, and what are the forces that drive these variations? Through systematic coding of policy documents from 97 prefecture-level cities, this study captures the patterns of migrant housing policies using cluster analysis. We found that 18.6 per cent of the cities adopted a residual approach. Most cities adopted a rental-based approach (public and private rental, and collective rental) that could only meet migrants’ short-term housing needs. Only a few cities (12.4 per cent) adopted a citizenship-oriented approach, which best fits the central government's overarching goal of facilitating migrant workers’ long-term settlement in the host cities. Regression analyses examining the determinants of local migrant housing policies showed that the policy variations were not only shaped by economic and political concerns but also the salience of urban issues (problem-solving functions) and previous welfare generosity (path-dependency tendencies).
Phytoestrogens may have potential effects on hormone-related cancers (HRC) and cancer biomarkers, but the findings have been inconsistent so far. Participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2010 with information on the levels of urinary phytoestrogens, serum cancer biomarkers and cancer history were included. Sampling-weighted logistic regression models examined the association between urinary phytoestrogens concentrations (creatinine-standardised and log-transformed) and HRC, followed by stratified analyses by race/ethnicity, age and menopausal status for different gender. Correlation analyses between phytoestrogens and cancer biomarkers were performed. Of the total 8844 participants, there were 373 with HRC. We observed total isoflavone and enterodiol excretion were positively associated with HRC, especially in non-Hispanic white female subpopulations (Ptrend < 0·05). Similar association also existed in the total isoflavones and enterodiol levels with breast cancer. Whereas the highest concentration of total isoflavones was significantly linked to a reduced prevalence of HRC (OR = 0·40, 95 % CI: 0·19, 0·84) in white males and of prostate cancer (OR = 0·40, 95 % CI: 0·18, 0·86). Among twenty-four participants with HRC, urinary equol concentration was positively correlated with CA15.3. Also, an inverse correlation of total prostate-specific antigens (PSA) and positive correlation of the PSA ratio with urinary enterolactone were detected in thirteen prostate cancer patients. Our findings indicated that higher concentrations of total isoflavones and enterodiol were positively associated with HRC. Urinary certain phytoestrogen excretion may affect serum cancer biomarker levels in cancer patients. But further prospective studies are needed to provide stronger evidence.
Layer reinsurance treaty is a common form obtained in the problem of optimal reinsurance design. In this paper, we study allocations of policy limits in layer reinsurance treaties with dependent risks. We investigate the effects of orderings and heterogeneity among policy limits on the expected utility functions of the terminal wealth from the viewpoint of risk-averse insurers faced with right tail weakly stochastic arrangement increasing losses. Orderings on optimal allocations are presented for normal layer reinsurance contracts under certain conditions. Parallel studies are also conducted for randomized layer reinsurance contracts. As a special case, the worst allocations of policy limits are also identified when the exact dependence structure among the losses is unknown. Numerical examples are presented to shed light on the theoretical findings.
The identification of herbicide tolerance is essential for effective chemical weed control. According to whole-plant dose–response assays, none of 29 pond lovegrass [Eragrostis japonica (Thunb.) Trin.] populations were sensitive to penoxsulam. The effective dose values of penoxsulam causing 50% inhibition of fresh weight (GR50: 105.14 to 148.78 g ai ha−1) in E. japonica populations were much higher than the label rate of penoxsulam (15 to 30 g ai ha−1) in the field. This confirmed that E. japonica was tolerant to penoxsulam. Eragrostis japonica populations showed 52.83- to 74.76-fold higher tolerance to penoxsulam than susceptible barnyardgrass [Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv.]. The mechanisms of tolerance to penoxsulam in E. japonica were also identified. In vitro activity assays revealed that the penoxsulam concentration required to inhibit 50% of the acetolactate synthase (ALS) activity (IC50) was 12.27-fold higher in E. japonica than in E. crus-galli. However, differences in the ALS gene, previously found to endow target-site resistance in weeds, were not detected in the sequences obtained. Additionally, the expression level of genes encoding ALS in E. japonica was approximately 2-fold higher than in E. crus-galli after penoxsulam treatment. Furthermore, penoxsulam tolerance can be significantly reversed by three cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CytP450) inhibitors (1-aminobenzotriazole, piperonyl butoxide, and malathion), and the activity of NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 reductase toward penoxsulam in E. japonica increased significantly (approximately 7-fold higher) compared with that of treated E. crus-galli. Taken together, these results indicate that lower ALS sensitivity, relatively higher ALS expression levels, and stronger metabolism of CytP450s combined to bring about penoxsulam tolerance in E. japonica.
In strong-field physics experiments with ultraintense lasers, a single-shot cross-correlator (SSCC) is essential for fast optimization of the pulse contrast and meaningful comparison with theory for each pulse shot. To simultaneously characterize an ultrashort pulse and its long pedestal, the SSCC device must have both a high resolution and a large temporal window. However, the resolution and window in all kinds of single-shot measurement contradict each other in principle. Here we propose and demonstrate a novel SSCC device with two separate measurement channels: channel-1 for the large-window pedestal measurement has a moderate resolution but a large window, while channel-2 for the ultrashort pulse measurement has a small window but a high resolution; this allows the accurate characterization of the pulse contrast in a single shot. A two-channel SSCC device with a 200-fs resolution and 114-ps window has been developed and tested for its application in ultraintense lasers at 800 nm.
The mitochondrial genome provides important information for phylogenetic analysis and an understanding of evolutionary origin. In this study, the mitochondrial genomes of Ilisha elongata and Setipinna tenuifilis were sequenced, which are typical circular vertebrate mitochondrial genomes composed of 16,770 and 16,805 bp, respectively. The mitogenomes of I. elongata and S. tenuifilis include 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA (tRNA), two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and one control region (CR). Both two species' genome compositions were highly A + T biased and exhibited positive AT-skews and negative GC-skews. The genetic distance and Ka/Ks ratio analyses indicated that 13 PCGs were affected by purifying selection and the selection pressures were different from certain deep-sea fishes, which were most likely due to the difference in their living environment. Results of phylogenetic analysis support close relationships among Chirocentridae, Denticipitidae, Clupeidae, Engraulidae and Pristigasteridae based on the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of 13 PCGs. Within Clupeoidei, I. elongata and S. tenuifilis were most closely related to the family Pristigasteridae and Engraulidae, respectively. These results will help to better understand the evolutionary position of Clupeiformes and provide a reference for further phylogenetic research on Clupeiformes species.
Whether starchy and nonstarchy vegetables have distinct impacts on health remains unknown. We prospectively investigated the intake of starchy and nonstarchy vegetables in relation to mortality risk in a nationwide cohort. Diet was assessed using 24-h dietary recalls. Deaths were identified via the record linkage to the National Death Index. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using Cox regression. During a median follow-up of 7.8 years, 4,904 deaths were documented among 40,074 participants aged 18 years or older. Compared to those with no consumption, participants with daily consumption of ≥ 1 serving of nonstarchy vegetables had a lower risk of mortality (HR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.66-0.88, ptrend = 0.001). Dark-green and deep-yellow vegetables (HR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.63-0.99, ptrend = 0.023) and other nonstarchy vegetables (HR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.70-0.92, ptrend = 0.004) showed similar results. Total starchy vegetable intake exhibited a marginally weak inverse association with mortality risk (HR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.80-1.00, ptrend = 0.048), while potatoes showed a null association (HR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.82-1.06, ptrend = 0.186). Restricted cubic spline analysis suggested a linear dose‒response relationship between vegetable intake and death risk, with a plateau at over 300 and 200 grams/day for total and nonstarchy vegetables, respectively. Compared to starchy vegetables, nonstarchy vegetables might be more beneficial to health, although both showed a protective association with mortality risk. The risk reduction in mortality plateaued at approximately 200 grams/day for nonstarchy vegetables and 300 grams/day for total vegetables.
Although attentional bias modification training (ABM) and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) are two effective methods to decrease the symptoms of generalized anxiety disorders (GAD), to date, no randomized controlled trials have yet evaluated the effectiveness of an intervention combining internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (ICBT) and ABM for adults with GAD.
This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of an intervention combining ICBT and ABM for adults with GAD.
Sixty-three participants diagnosed with GAD were randomly assigned to the treatment group (ICBT with ABM; 31 participants) or the control group (ICBT with ABM placebo; 32 participants), and received 8 weeks of treatment and three evaluations. The CBT, ABM and ABM-placebo training were conducted via the internet. The evaluations were conducted at baseline, 8 weeks later, and 1 month later, respectively.
Both the treatment and control groups reported significantly reduced anxiety symptoms and attentional bias, with no clear superiority of either intervention. However, the treatment group showed a greater reduction in negative automatic thoughts than the control group after treatment and at 1-month follow-up (η2 = 0.123).
The results suggest that although not differing in therapeutic efficacy, the intervention combining ICBT and ABM is superior to the intervention combining ICBT and ABM-placebo in the reduction of negative automatic thoughts. ABM may be a useful augmentation of ICBT on reducing anxiety symptoms.
This study aimed to analyze the clinical effects of microdissection testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE) surgery combined with an intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) regimen in the treatment of non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) patients with different etiologies. In total, 128 NOA patients participated in this study, in which they received infertility treatment by micro-TESE surgery combined with an ICSI regimen, and all patients were divided into three groups [the Klinefelter syndrome (KS), the idiopathic and the secondary NOA groups]. In addition, the sperm retrieval rate (SRR), fertilization rate, embryo development status and clinical treatment effects were analyzed. Among the 128 NOA patients, the SRR of KS NOA patients was 48.65%, those of idiopathic and the secondary patients were 33.82% and 73.91%, respectively. Regardless of etiologies, there was no correlation with age, hormone value or testicular volume. Further analysis showed that the SRR of the KS group was positively related with testosterone (T) values, and the SRR of the secondary group had a positive relationship with follicle-stimulating hormone or luteinizing hormone values. In the subsequent clinical treatment, the retrieved sperm was subjected to ICSI and achieved good treatment effects, especially in the secondary group, and the implantation rate (55.56%) and clinical pregnancy rate (68.42%) were both higher than those of the idiopathic group (28.75% and 40.00%) and KS group (22.05% and 30.77%). Micro-TESE surgery combined with ICSI insemination is the most effective treatment regimen for NOA patients. The SRR of NOA patients with different etiologies are related to certain specific factors, and micro-TESE surgery seems to be the ideal and only way to have biological children.
A pilot project has been proceeded to map
on the Galactic plane for radio recombination lines (RRLs) using the Five-hundred-metre Aperture Spherical Telescope (FAST). The motivation is to verify the techniques and reliabilities for a large-scale Galactic plane RRL survey with FAST aiming to investigate the ionised environment in the Galaxy. The data shows that the bandpass of the FAST 19 beam L-band is severely affected by radio frequency interferences and standing wave ripples, which can hardly be corrected by traditional low order polynomials. In this paper, we investigate a series of penalised least square (PLS) based baseline correction methods for radio astronomical spectra that usually contain weak signals with high level of noise. Three promising penalised least squares based methods, AsLS, arPLS, and asPLS are evaluated. Adopting their advantages, a modified method named rrlPLS is developed to optimise the baseline fitting to our RRL spectra. To check their effectiveness, the four methods are tested by simulations and further verified using observed data sets. It turns out that the rrlPLS method, with optimised parameter
, reveals the most sensitive and reliable emission features in the RRL map. By injecting artificial line profiles into the real data cube, a further evaluation of profile distortion is conducted for rrlPLS. Comparing to simulated signals, the processed lines with low signal-to-noise ratio are less affected, of which the uncertainties are mainly caused by the rms noise. The rrlPLS method will be applied for baseline correction in future data processing pipeline of FAST RRL survey. Configured with proper parameters, the rrlPLS technique verified in this work may also be used for other spectroscopy projects.
This article presents a qualitative empirical study of elite collusion and its influence on village elections and rural land development in China. Drawing on ethnographic data collected from two Chinese villages, it investigates how village cadres collude with other rural elites, using bribery, gift-giving and lavish banquets, to establish reciprocal ties with township officials and other public officials. Meanwhile, the officials make use of formal organizations to corruptly obtain profits and form alliances with village elites. The article examines how rural elites, especially village cadres, use this collusion to profit from the misuse of villagers’ collectively owned assets, the manipulation of village elections and the suppression of anti-corruption protests. It also offers new descriptive evidence of how recent reforms designed to strengthen the Party's overall leadership in rural governance may have actually facilitated elite capture and grassroots corruption.
In the field of robot reinforcement learning (RL), the reality gap has always been a problem that restricts the robustness and generalization of algorithms. We propose Simulation Twin (SimTwin) : a deep RL framework that can help directly transfer the model from simulation to reality without any real-world training. SimTwin consists of a RL module and an adaptive correct module. We train the policy using the soft actor-critic algorithm only in a simulator with demonstration and domain randomization. In the adaptive correct module, we design and train a neural network to simulate the human error correction process using force feedback. Subsequently, we combine the above two modules through digital twin to control real-world robots, correct simulator parameters by comparing the difference between simulator and reality automatically, and then generalize the correct action through the trained policy network without additional training. We demonstrate the proposed method in an open cabinet task; the experiments show that our framework can reduce the reality gap without any real-world training.