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The history of music criticism in Portugal is only slowly emerging as a field of musicological inquiry, owing in part to the lack of a systematic inventory of the relevant source materials, but also, no doubt, to the inherited view of the nineteenth century (if not the twentieth) as a period of decadence following a purported ‘golden age’ of Portuguese music – a view amounting to a foundation myth of Portuguese musicology that has only recently begun to be challenged. A reversal of this perspective was first articulated by the composer, essayist and critic Fernando Lopes Graça, who claimed provocatively, as early as 1935, that the nineteenth century had been, on the contrary, ‘the most fruitful, the one with the strongest and most beneficial consequences’, providing the country with the first outline of a modern musical life, less exclusively centred in the court, the church and – in theory, at least – the Italian opera.
White-matter hyperintensities have been associated with both schizophrenia and mood disorders, particularly bipolar disorder, but results are inconsistent across studies
To examine whether white-matter hyperintensities are a vulnerability marker for psychosis or are specifically associated with bipolar disorder
T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired in 129 individuals with first-episode psychosis (either affective or non-affective psychoses) and 102 controls who were randomly selected from the same geographical areas. Visual white-matter hyperintensity ratings were used for group and subgroup comparisons
There were no statistically significant between-group differences in white-matter hyperintensity frequency or severity scores. No significant correlations were found between white-matter hyperintensity scores and duration of illness, duration of untreated psychosis, or severity of psychotic, manic or depressive symptoms
White-matter hyperintensities are not associated with vulnerability to psychosis in general, or specifically with affective psychoses. Further, first-episode psychosis investigations using more quantitative methods are warranted to confirm these findings
In low-and middle-income countries people with schizophrenia are reported
to experience better outcomes than those in high-income countries
To examine structural brain differences in people with first-episode
psychosis and controls in Brazil
Magnetic resonance imaging using voxel-based morphometry was performed on
122 people with first-episode psychosis and 94 controls
There were significant decreases in grey matter in the left superior
temporal and inferior prefrontal cortices, insula bilaterally and the
right hippocampal region in first-episode psychosis
(P<0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons). The
subgroup of people with schizophrenia (n=62) exhibited a
similar pattern of decrease in grey matter relative to controls
Structural abnormalities reported in psychosis in high-income countries
are also present in first-episode psychosis in Brazil
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