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While research on the health and wellbeing of older lesbian, gay and bisexual adults is gradually expanding, research on older trans and gender non-conforming (TGNC) adults lags behind. Current scholarship about this group raises important questions about the intersection of ageing and gender identity for enhancing care and support for older TGNC adults and the lack of preparedness of health and social professionals for meeting these needs. In this paper, we examine the accounts of 22 TGNC individuals (50–74 years) on the topic of ageing and unpack their concerns for and expectations of later life. We present qualitative findings from a study of gender identity, ageing and care, based in Wales, United Kingdom. Data were generated from two-part interviews with each participant. Four key themes are identified: (a) facilitative factors for transitioning in mid- to later life; (b) growing older as a new lease of life; (c) growing older: regrets, delays and uncertainties; and (d) ambivalent expectations of social care services. We argue that growing older as TGNC can be experienced across a multitude of standpoints, ranging from a new lease of life to a time of regret and uncertainty. We critically discuss emergent notions of trans time, precarity and uncertainty running across participants’ accounts, and the implications for enhancing recognition of gender non-conformity and gender identity in social gerontology.
(1) To characterise changes in dead space fraction during the first 120 post-operative hours in neonates undergoing stage 1 palliation for hypoplastic left heart syndrome, including hybrid procedure; (2) to document whether dead space fraction varied by shunt type (Blalock–Taussig shunt and Sano) and hybrid procedure; and (3) to determine the association between dead space fraction and outcomes.
Retrospective chart review in neonates undergoing stage 1 palliation for hypoplastic left heart syndrome in a cardiac intensive care unit over a consecutive 30-month period. A linear mixed model was used to determine the differences in dead space over time. Multivariable linear regression and a multivariable linear mixed model were used to assess the association between dead space and outcomes at different time points and over time, respectively.
Thirty-four neonates received either a Blalock–Taussig shunt (20.5%), Sano shunt (59%), or hybrid procedure (20.5%). Hospital mortality was 8.8%. Dead space fractions in patients undergoing the hybrid procedure were significantly lower on day 1 (p = 0.01) and day 2 (p = 0.02) and increased over time. A dead space fraction >0.6 on post-operative days 3–5 was significantly associated with decreased duration of mechanical ventilation in all surgical groups (p < 0.001).
Dead space fraction >0.6 on post-operative days 3–5 was associated with lower duration of mechanical ventilation in all surgical groups. A more comprehensive, prospective assessment of dead space in this delicate patient population would likely be beneficial in improving outcomes.
The illegal killing and taking of wild birds remains a major threat on a global scale. However, there are few quantitative data on the species affected and countries involved. We quantified the scale and scope of this issue in Northern and Central Europe and the Caucasus, using a diverse range of data sources and incorporating expert knowledge. The issue was reported to be widespread across the region and affects almost all countries/territories assessed. We estimated that 0.4–2.1 million birds per year may be killed/taken illegally in the region. The highest estimate of illegal killing in the region was for Azerbaijan (0.2-1.0 million birds per year). Out of the 20 worst locations identified, 13 were located in the Caucasus. Birds were reported to be illegally killed/taken primarily for sport and food in the Caucasus and for sport and predator/pest control in both Northern and Central Europe. All of the 28 countries assessed are parties to the Bern Convention and 19 are also European Union Member States. There are specific initiatives under both these policy instruments to tackle this threat, yet our data showed that illegal killing and taking is still occurring and is not restricted to Mediterranean European countries. Markedly increased effort is required to ensure that existing legislation is adequately implemented and complied with/enforced on the ground. Our study also highlighted the paucity of data on illegal killing and taking of birds in the region. It is a priority, identified by relevant initiatives under the Bern Convention and the European Union, to implement systematic monitoring of illegal killing and taking and to collate robust data, allowing stakeholders to set priorities, track trends and monitor the effectiveness of responses.
Stylistic composition is a creative musical activity, in which students as well as renowned composers write according to the style of another composer or period. We describe and evaluate two computational models of stylistic composition, called Racchman-Oct2010 (random constrained chain of Markovian nodes, October 2010) and Racchmaninof-Oct2010 (Racchman with inheritance of form). The former is a constrained Markov model, and the latter embeds this model in an analogy-based design system. Racchmaninof-Oct2010 applies a pattern discovery algorithm called SIACT and a perceptually validated formula for rating pattern importance, to guide the generation of a new target design from an existing source design. A listening study is reported concerning human judgments of music excerpts that are, to varying degrees, in the style of mazurkas by Frédéric Chopin (1810–1849). The listening study acts as an evaluation of the two computational models and a third, benchmark system, called Experiments in Musical Intelligence. Judges' responses indicate that some aspects of musical style, such as phrasing and rhythm, are being modeled effectively by our algorithms. Judgments are also used to identify areas for future improvements. We discuss the broader implications of this work for the fields of engineering and design, where there is potential to make use of our models of hierarchical repetitive structure.
The population is ageing and the rights, welfare and wellbeing of this age cohort are becoming more globally prominent and the focus of much policy development. Whilst research is leading the way and informing this in many spheres of an older person's life, this is not the case for sexual health. Campaigns of sexual health literacy and intervention are targeted at ‘at-risk’ cohorts, largely ignoring those over 60 years of age. With increases in sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in this age group and the potentially serious nature of untreated conditions, this review highlights the need for increased research, health literacy and targeted interventions. Social, societal and physical barriers preventing older adults engaging with safer sex have been identified, highlighting the extent of the attitudinal and policy shifts required to provide age parity.
This paper examines the ways in which older people's residential and nursing homes can constitute heteronormative environments – social spaces in which the same-sex attractions and desires of residents are disregarded in the provision of everyday care. The aim of this discussion is to examine the synergies and differences between older lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) adults' expectations for future care home provision and the expectations of care staff and managers in providing residential services to older people with diverse sexual backgrounds. We present qualitative evidence from research into the provision of care environments in Wales. In this paper, we present findings from two cohorts: first, from five focus groups with care and nursing staff and managers; and second, from 29 semi-structured interviews with older LGB adults (50–76 years) residing in urban and rural locations across Wales. We argue that residential care environments can constitute heterosexualised spaces in which LGB identities are neglected in comparison to the needs and preferences of other residents. To this extent, we discuss how care staff and managers can be more attentive and responsive to the sexual biographies of all residents and argue against the separation of care and sexual orientation in practice.
Open science is a new concept for the practice of experimental laboratory-based research, such as drug discovery. The authors have recently gained experience in how to run such projects and here describe some straightforward steps others may wish to take towards more openness in their own research programmes. Existing and inexpensive online tools can solve many challenges, while some psychological barriers to the free sharing of all data and ideas are more substantial.
Malaria is a disease that still affects a significant proportion of the global human population. Whilst advances have been made in lowering the numbers of cases and deaths, it is clear that a strategy based solely on disease control year on year, without reducing transmission and ultimately eradicating the parasite, is unsustainable. This article highlights the current mainstay treatments alongside a selection of emerging new clinical molecules from the portfolio of Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV) and our partners. In each case, the key highlights from each research phase are described to demonstrate how these new potential medicines were discovered. Given the increased focus of the community on eradicating the disease, the strategy for next generation combination medicines that will provide such potential is explained.
The aim of the present study was to investigate changes in voicing identification, discrimination, and categorical perception induced by identification training centered on three different training values. One group of French-speaking adults was trained across a universal auditory boundary (−30 ms voice onset time), and two other groups were trained across arbitrary boundaries (−45 or −60 ms voice onset time). A control group did not receive any training. The results showed that both the −30 and the −45 training groups exhibited a 10 ms shift in the identification boundary. Moreover, for the −30 training group, discrimination and categorical perception changed around the French phonological boundary. These results illustrate the possibility of modifying the French phonological perception after short-time training, particularly when centered on a universal boundary. However, training only had limited effects and even strengthened the phonological boundary, congruent with the hypothesis that this boundary is acquired by a perceptual “coupling” between universal boundaries.
Objective: The paucity of evidence and wide variation among communities creates challenges for developing congressionally mandated national performance standards for public health preparedness. Using countermeasure dispensing as an example, we present an approach for developing standards that balances national uniformity and local flexibility, consistent with the quality of evidence available.
Methods: We used multiple methods, including a survey of community practices, mathematical modeling, and expert panel discussion.
Results: The article presents recommended dispensing standards, along with a general framework that can be used to analyze tradeoffs involved in developing other preparedness standards.
Conclusions: Standards can be developed using existing evidence, but would be helped immensely by a stronger evidence base.
(Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2010;4:285-290)
The 5HTTLPR genetic variant of the serotonin transporter gene (SERT or
5-HTT), which is comprised of a short (SERT-s) and a long (SERT-l)
allele, is associated with major depressive disorder and post-traumatic
The present study sought to determine whether the total thalamus and
major subregions are altered in size in major depressive disorder and in
relation to the 5HTTLPR genotype.
We investigated the influence of 5HTTLPR genotype, psychiatric diagnosis,
suicide and other clinical factors on the volume of the entire
Major depressive disorder, SERT-ss genotype and suicide emerged as
independent factors contributing to an enlargement of the total thalamus.
The majority of the volume enlargement associated with the SERT-ss
genotype occurred in the pulvinar, whereas enlargement associated with
major depressive disorder occurred in the limbic nuclei and in other
regions of the thalamus. A history of antidepressant treatment was
associated with reduced thalamic volume.
The 5HTTLPR genetic variation may affect behaviour and psychiatric
conditions, in part, by altering the anatomy of the thalamus.
Over current stabilization of YBa2Cu30x (YBCO) coated conductor high temperature superconductor tape is required in most applications. The conductor must carry currents in excess of the critical current, Ic, without damage during over current events. Conductor damage is the result of joule heating and excessive temperature rise in regions with low Ic. We have developed and applied a measurement technique using a locally applied magnetic field with a high spatial gradient to define a small area over which the Ic is depressed. By measuring the voltage and temperature as a function of current, power dissipation and temperature rise were determined. Unstabilized conductors experienced thermal runaway and are easily damaged. Copper stabilizers applied by electroplating decreased dramatically the temperature rise and increased the level of power dissipation compared with the unstabilized conductor.
This study explored the relation between a motor-free visual perceptual deficit, different visual–motor integration deficits, and different motor skills in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Thirty-six children (22 males), aged 9 or 10 years, with DCD and a control group (n=36), matched for age and sex, were assessed with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC), a ball-catching test, a jumping test, a timed response task to a visual moving stimulus, and the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual–Motor Integration, incorporating copying, visual discrimination, and tracing tasks. Children with DCD performed significantly worse than the control group on all measures. The visual discrimination task did not correlate significantly with any of the motor tasks. The visual timing task correlated significantly with the ball-catching test in the DCD group. The copying test was significantly correlated with the MABC in the DCD group. The association between visual–perceptual deficits and motor tasks was shown to be task specific.
With the extensive focus on lean conformation in the finished hog over the past 25 years, there is some indication that pork quality has suffered and taste has been bred out of today's pork. Similar to the Certified Angus Beef program (a breed noted for intramuscular fat), small-scale farmers can promote a different ‘upscale’ pork by using breeds that will focus on pork taste exclusively, and feeding diets (possibly apart from corn and soybeans) to enhance flavor. Two experiments were devised to examine the influence of breed, rearing environment and diet on fresh pork quality and flavor. In Trial 1, three sow breed groups (Tamworth, Tamworth×Landrace, or Hampshire×Landrace) were mated to Duroc boars. Littermates (91 pigs total) were assigned randomly at weaning to one of three treatments: (1) confinement, (2) dry-lot and (3) pasture. All pigs were full fed a 16% crude protein (CP) grow-finish ration. Pasture pigs were allowed access to plots consisting of predominately white and crimson clovers with warm-season grasses (Bermuda grass and crab grass). Hampshire crosses had higher Minolta L* scores, indicating a paler, less desirable loin. Pork quality was similar across rearing environments except for lower initial pH levels observed in the pasture system and higher drip-loss percentage recorded in both outdoor systems. In Trial 2, 42 Tamworth×Duroc littermates were randomly assigned to one of two rearing environments (confinement or pasture) at 55 kg and full fed a 14% CP diet. Pigs finishing on pasture had access to standing, mature barley. Pork from the pasture system was darker than that from pigs reared in confinement. No differences were observed in sensory evaluation of the pork for the rearing environments examined. For both trials, intramuscular fat levels (<2%) and visual color scores were too low to be considered for ‘upscale’ markets. Alternative diets to produce niche-market pork are unlikely to influence flavor without adequate levels of marbling.
The year 1945 offered German scholarship on the United States a chance to start over. The era of anti-American propaganda, the “Aryanization” of cultural studies and the social sciences, and the expulsion of Jewish and other scholars and intellectuals from the academy was now past. The few emigrants who returned to take up permanent residence in West Germany and to teach and conduct research at West German universities played a key role in furthering scholarly discussion of American culture, society, economics, and politics. The majority of the scholars who had been forced to flee Germany, however, remained a lost resource for both West and East Germany after 1945.
Only a few West Germans in 1950 saw American culture and scholarship as a model for German reconstruction. The majority looked to pre-1933 German academic traditions. Indeed, America's “cultural independence” came as a surprise to many, for America had traditionally been regarded as an intellectual colony of Europe. The resentment of a defeated and occupied nation also came into play. Given this situation, the Amerika-Hauser established in the American zone of occupation shortly after the war ended played an important role.
The exchange programs instituted by the United States would have far-ranging consequences. In 1948, German secondary-school and university students, academics, and journalists began streaming into the United States, and at the same time hundreds of American scholars in the humanities and social sciences came to Germany as guest professors. Assisted by the program that Senator J. William Fulbright initiated in 1946, 12,824 Fulbright scholars – Germans and Americans, students and professors – crossed the Atlantic between 1952 and 1988.