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Obesity is a pressing social issue and a persistently newsworthy topic for the media. This book examines the linguistic representation of obesity in the British press. It combines techniques from corpus linguistics with critical discourse studies to analyse a large corpus of newspaper articles (36 million words) representing ten years of obesity coverage. These articles are studied from a range of methodological perspectives, and analytical themes include variation between newspapers, change over time, diet and exercise, gender and social class. The volume also investigates the language that readers use when responding to obesity representations in the context of online comments. The authors reveal the power of linguistic choices to shame and stigmatise people with obesity, presenting them as irresponsible and morally deviant. Yet the analysis also demonstrates the potential for alternative representations which place greater focus on the role that social and political forces play in this topical health issue.
How do violent jihadists use language to try to persuade people to carry out violent acts? This book analyses over two million words of texts produced by violent jihadists to identify and examine the linguistic strategies employed. Taking a mixed methods approach, the authors combine quantitative methods from corpus linguistics, which allow the identification of frequent words and phrases, alongside close reading of texts via discourse analyses. The analysis compares language use across three sets of texts: those which advocate violence, those which take a hostile but non-violent standpoint, and those which take a moderate perspective, identifying the different uses of language associated with different stages of radicalization. The book also discusses how strategies including use of Arabic, romanisation, formal English, quotation, metaphor, dehumanisation and collectivisation are used to create in and out groups and justify violence.
Conventional airway management, including intubation and the various modes of lung ventilation, is usually successful. When it fails (cannot intubate, cannot ventilate/oxygenate) it is a life-threatening emergency and will lead to hypoxic brain damage in a few minutes, followed by death, if not resolved. The common final pathway for securing the airway and oxygenation is an emergency front of neck airway (eFONA). Immediate action with a clear plan, appropriate equipment and skills is essential. The ability to efficiently perform an eFONA is a fundamental requirement for any practitioner engaged in advanced airway management. Many techniques are described and it is a difficult area to study, so the evidence of superiority of one technique over others is hard to establish. Preparation, in terms of equipment availability, procedural practice, team familiarity and prompt transitioning through the algorithm when other techniques fail, is important for patient safety. These human factors aspects of eFONA management are at least as important as the procedural technique chosen. This chapter considers the risk factors for airway failure and management of the cannot intubate, cannot oxygenate situation and eFONA procedure in adults and children.
Smoking rates in people with depression and anxiety are twice as high as in the general population, even though people with depression and anxiety are motivated to stop smoking. Most healthcare professionals are aware that stopping smoking is one of the greatest changes that people can make to improve their health. However, smoking cessation can be a difficult topic to raise. Evidence suggests that smoking may cause some mental health problems, and that the tobacco withdrawal cycle partly contributes to worse mental health. By stopping smoking, a person's mental health may improve, and the size of this improvement might be equal to taking antidepressants. In this article we outline ways in which healthcare professionals can compassionately and respectfully raise the topic of smoking to encourage smoking cessation. We draw on evidence-based methods such as cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) and outline approaches that healthcare professionals can use to integrate these methods into routine care to help their patients stop smoking.
The public education provided to nonwhite youth in urban communities is a central social justice issue contributing to racial inequity in the United States. Significant disproportionality exists between urban and suburban education, causing urban minority youth to become disengaged from schooling that does not adequately serve their needs. Youth participatory action research (YPAR), a strategy through which youth act as co-researchers alongside professional researchers and community members investigating social justice issues, can help to reengage urban youth in their education by creating conditions around which youth want to learn. This chapter introduces YPAR as a mechanism through which urban education can be more tailored to the unique experiences of urban minority youth. A case study is provided that illustrates how YPAR youth participants grow more conscious of social justice issues facing them and their community, while also developing their sense of agency relative to being able to confront these issues action. Additionally, this case study explores how future urban educators can adopt YPAR practices and principles to develop a more culturally responsive pedagogy. Suggestions for YPAR facilitation are given, while specific challenges are discussed that must be met when attempting the implementation of YPAR.
To evaluate dyslipidaemia risk among patients with schizophrenia treated with aripiprazole or olanzapine.
Pooled analysis of the aripiprazole clinical database, including studies of ≥7 days with at least an oral aripiprazole monotherapy arm. Mean changes from baseline to endpoint and shifts from normal to abnormal lipid levels were calculated.
Seventeen placebo- and five olanzapine-controlled studies (3 weeks->3 years) of adult patients (≥18 years) were included. Mean changes (LOCF) in lipids were similar between aripiprazole and placebo for all lipid parameters; aripiprazole showed significant improvements versus olanzapine (p≤0.01). the incidence (OC) of switching to abnormal lipid levels from baseline normal was similar between placebo and aripiprazole, and significantly lower with aripiprazole than olanzapine for most measures.
Despite limitations inherent to pooled analyses, these findings lend further support to the differential profile of atypicals, with aripiprazole showing effects on lipids comparable with placebo.
Microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) was used to diffuse boron into tantalum using plasma initiated from a feedgas mixture containing hydrogen and diborane. The role of substrate temperature and substrate bias in influencing surface chemical structure and hardness was investigated. X-ray diffraction shows that increased temperature results in increased TaB2 formation (relative to TaB) along with increased strain in the tantalum body-centered cubic lattice. Once the strained tantalum becomes locally supersaturated with boron, TaB and TaB2 precipitate. Additional boron remains in a solid solution within the tantalum. The combination of precipitation and solid solution hardening along with boron-induced lattice strain may help explain the 40 GPa average hardness measured by nanoindentation. Application of negative substrate bias did not further increase the hardness, possibly due to etching from increased ion bombardment. These results show that MPCVD is a viable method for synthesis of superhard borides based on plasma-assisted diffusion.
It is important for the pediatric airway clinician to maintain oxygenation and avoid trauma when managing a child with a difficult airway. While these two objectives are compatible, it is also known that oxygen therapy can lead to significant harm. This chapter will include a discussion of various forms of oxygenation techniques during pediatric airway management, with an emphasis on avoiding hypoxia during all phases of the perioperative process. Included in this discussion will be mention of the deleterious effects of hypoxemia and hyperoxia, and the potential dangers of some oxygenation techniques.
Various paleoclimatic records have been used to reconstruct the hydrologic history of the Altiplano, relating this history to past variability of the South American summer monsoon. Prior studies of the southern Altiplano, the location of the world’s largest salt flat, the Salar de Uyuni, and its neighbor, the Salar de Coipasa, generally agree in their reconstructions of the climate history of the past ∼24 ka. Some studies, however, have highly divergent climatic records and interpretations of earlier periods. In this study, lake-level variation was reconstructed from a ∼14-m-long sediment core from the Salar de Coipasa. These sediments span the last ∼40 ka. Lacustrine sediment accumulation was apparently continuous in the basin from ∼40 to 6 ka, with dry or very shallow conditions afterward. The fossil diatom stratigraphy and geochemical data (δ13C, δ15N, %Ca, C/N) indicate fluctuations in lake level from shallow to moderately deep, with the deepest conditions correlative with the Heinrich-1 and Younger Dryas events. The stratigraphy shows a continuous lake of variable depth and salinity during the last glacial maximum and latter stages of Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage 3 and is consistent with environmental inferences and the original chronology of a drill core from Salar de Uyuni.
This chapter explores the expanding range of community archiving activity concerned with the preservation of cultures, experiences and memories associated with popular music. Engendered by forms as disparate as jazz, rock, soul or country music, such is the variety of this field that a similarly expanding scholarly literature has emerged as a means of mapping and understanding its meanings and significance. While much of this activity takes a familiar physical form (Baker, 2017), here we explore the ways in which the digital enables the extension of such activity. In further democratising the nature of historical work and the archive, online practice is also suggestive of how popular pleasures are subject to a form of cultural justice, a concept which frames this chapter.
The nature of online community archives of popular music can be illustrated with reference to heavy metal, the most listened to genre of music on the streaming service Spotify (Van Buskirk, 2015). Affirming this popularity, Wall Street Journal reporter Neil Shah (2016) describes the genre as the real ‘World Music’, that ‘Heavy Metal has become the unlikely soundtrack of globalization’. While record sales and tour receipts attest to the genre's economic power, its popularity is equally tangible in the activity of hundreds of thousands of individuals who contribute to the range of communities of interest associated with it. These are most visibly formed online at sites such as Metal Wiki (https://metal.wikia.com) or Metal Travel Guide (https://www.metaltravelguide.com), an ‘evolving database of rock and metal clubs, bars, pubs, venues and more all added and reviewed by people like you!’
A key site discussed in this chapter is Encyclopaedia Metallum: The Metal Archives (https://www.metal-archives.com), which, alongside the dynamic world of current activity, seeks to record the genre's global history. This archival intent is not uncommon among similar online communities. In relation to the metal genre, for instance, on Facebook one can find Museo del Metal En Paraguay (The Paraguayan Metal Museum), MetalMusicArchives or Old School Metal, T Shirts And Memorabilia, while on Twitter, the user Black Antiquarium presents ‘Black Metal pics from ‘80s, ‘90s & present days’. One of the most ambitious projects to engage the metal community in building its collective history is the Home of Metal project.
Because the 14C calibration curves IntCal and SHCal are based on data from temperate latitudes, it remains unclear which curve is more suitable for archaeological and paleoenvironmental records from tropical South America. A review of climate dynamics reveals a significant influx of Northern Hemisphere air masses and moisture over a substantial part of the continent during the South American Summer Monsoon (SASM). Areas affected by the SASM receive unknown amounts of input from both hemispheres, where an argument could be made for either curve. Until localized tree-ring data can resolve this, we suggest using a mixed calibration curve, which accounts for inputs from both hemispheres, as a third calibration option. We present a calibration example from a crucial period of environmental and cultural change in the southern Lake Titicaca. Given our current lack of data on past ∆14C variation in South America, our calibrations and chronologies will likely change in the future. We hope this paper spurs new research into this topic and encourages researchers to make an informed and explicit choice of which curve to use, which is particularly relevant in research on past human–environmental relationships.
High levels of biodiversity and endemism in ancient lakes have motivated research on evolutionary processes in these systems. Drill-core records from Lake Titicaca (Bolivia, Peru), an ancient lake in the high-elevation Altiplano, record the history of climate, landscape dynamics, and diatom evolution. That record was used to examine the patterns and drivers of morphological evolution of an endemic species complex of diatoms in the lake, the Cyclostephanos andinus complex. In an attempt to delineate species within the complex based on morphology, no discernible evidence was found for species separation based on an ordination analysis of multiple characters, but multiple populations were detected based on the distribution of valve size in individual samples. Likelihood modeling of phyletic evolution showed that size evolved through punctuated change. Correlation of size trends with environmental variables indicates that C. andinus size responded to regional environmental change driven by global processes that influenced Lake Titicaca by affecting lake level and thermal stratification.
Whether monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins differ from each other in a variety of phenotypes is important for genetic twin modeling and for inferences made from twin studies in general. We analyzed whether there were differences in individual, maternal and paternal education between MZ and DZ twins in a large pooled dataset. Information was gathered on individual education for 218,362 adult twins from 27 twin cohorts (53% females; 39% MZ twins), and on maternal and paternal education for 147,315 and 143,056 twins respectively, from 28 twin cohorts (52% females; 38% MZ twins). Together, we had information on individual or parental education from 42 twin cohorts representing 19 countries. The original education classifications were transformed to education years and analyzed using linear regression models. Overall, MZ males had 0.26 (95% CI [0.21, 0.31]) years and MZ females 0.17 (95% CI [0.12, 0.21]) years longer education than DZ twins. The zygosity difference became smaller in more recent birth cohorts for both males and females. Parental education was somewhat longer for fathers of DZ twins in cohorts born in 1990–1999 (0.16 years, 95% CI [0.08, 0.25]) and 2000 or later (0.11 years, 95% CI [0.00, 0.22]), compared with fathers of MZ twins. The results show that the years of both individual and parental education are largely similar in MZ and DZ twins. We suggest that the socio-economic differences between MZ and DZ twins are so small that inferences based upon genetic modeling of twin data are not affected.