To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
In this paper we examine the role of weak magnetic fields in breaking Kelvin’s circulation theorem and in vortex breakup in two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics for the physically important case of a fluid with low magnetic Prandtl number (low
). We consider three canonical inviscid solutions for the purely hydrodynamical problem, namely a Gaussian vortex, a circular vortex patch and an elliptical vortex patch. We examine how magnetic fields lead to an initial loss of circulation
and attempt to derive scaling laws for the loss of circulation as a function of field strength and diffusion as measured by two non-dimensional parameters. We show that for all cases the loss of circulation depends on the integrated effects of the Lorentz force, with the patch cases leading to significantly greater circulation loss. For the case of the elliptical vortex, the loss of circulation depends on the total area swept out by the rotating vortex, and so this leads to more efficient circulation loss than for a circular vortex.
IAU Symposium 336, Astrophysical Masers: Unlocking the Mysteries of the Universe, took place between 4 - 8 September, 2017 in Cagliari, on the beautiful island of Sardinia. The Symposium, the fifth focusing on masers as a tool for astrophysics, was dedicated to our friend and colleague Malcolm Walmsley, who sadly passed away shortly before the meeting. To quote Karl Menten: “Malcolm made numerous fundamental contributions to our understanding of the physics and chemistry of star formation and the interstellar medium. He was an exceptional scientist, a highly esteemed colleague and a true gentleman”. Vale Malcolm. The topics discussed at the symposium covered a huge range, from star-formation, evolved stars, galaxies and their constituents, super-massive black-holes to cosmology.
Background: Approximately 12-15% of patients with intracranial aneurysms (IA) have affected first-degree relatives, and are considered to have familial intracranial aneurysms (FIA). Individuals with FIA are at higher risk for aneurysm formation and subarachnoid hemorrhage. THSD1 is the only gene to be associated with nonsyndromic FIA at this time. Our study aims to find rare DNA variants that are major risk factors for FIA in our cohort of patients. Methods: To date we have enrolled 37 affected and 31 unaffected people from 16 families. We have done exome or genome sequencing on at least 1 person from each of 12 families. Results: A rare p.(R686W) variant in THSD1 was found in 1/12 families, but did not cosegregate fully with disease. While less attractive as the primary cause of FIA, we cannot rule out the potential modifying effects of THSD1 p.(R686W) in this family. A second candidate, an extracellular matrix gene within a chromosomal region previously implicated by familial mapping studies, contains rare variants in 4/12 of our families. All four variants are predicted to be damaging. Conclusions: Alongside environmental risk factors, individual FIA families may also have complex rare variant contributions to their disease, such as digenic and multi-locus contributions.
A generalization of Serre’s Conjecture asserts that if
is a totally real field, then certain characteristic
representations of Galois groups over
arise from Hilbert modular forms. Moreover, it predicts the set of weights of such forms in terms of the local behaviour of the Galois representation at primes over
. This characterization of the weights, which is formulated using
-adic Hodge theory, is known under mild technical hypotheses if
. In this paper we give, under the assumption that
is unramified in
, a conjectural alternative description for the set of weights. Our approach is to use the Artin–Hasse exponential and local class field theory to construct bases for local Galois cohomology spaces in terms of which we identify subspaces that should correspond to ones defined using
-adic Hodge theory. The resulting conjecture amounts to an explicit description of wild ramification in reductions of certain crystalline Galois representations. It enables the direct computation of the set of Serre weights of a Galois representation, which we illustrate with numerical examples. A proof of this conjecture has been announced by Calegari, Emerton, Gee and Mavrides.
This paper describes the system architecture of a newly constructed radio telescope – the Boolardy engineering test array, which is a prototype of the Australian square kilometre array pathfinder telescope. Phased array feed technology is used to form multiple simultaneous beams per antenna, providing astronomers with unprecedented survey speed. The test array described here is a six-antenna interferometer, fitted with prototype signal processing hardware capable of forming at least nine dual-polarisation beams simultaneously, allowing several square degrees to be imaged in a single pointed observation. The main purpose of the test array is to develop beamforming and wide-field calibration methods for use with the full telescope, but it will also be capable of limited early science demonstrations.
A survey of the Milky Way disk and the Magellanic System at the wavelengths of the 21-cm atomic hydrogen (H i) line and three 18-cm lines of the OH molecule will be carried out with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. The survey will study the distribution of H i emission and absorption with unprecedented angular and velocity resolution, as well as molecular line thermal emission, absorption, and maser lines. The area to be covered includes the Galactic plane (|b| < 10°) at all declinations south of δ = +40°, spanning longitudes 167° through 360°to 79° at b = 0°, plus the entire area of the Magellanic Stream and Clouds, a total of 13 020 deg2. The brightness temperature sensitivity will be very good, typically σT≃ 1 K at resolution 30 arcsec and 1 km s−1. The survey has a wide spectrum of scientific goals, from studies of galaxy evolution to star formation, with particular contributions to understanding stellar wind kinematics, the thermal phases of the interstellar medium, the interaction between gas in the disk and halo, and the dynamical and thermal states of gas at various positions along the Magellanic Stream.
We present results of Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) polarimetric 22 GHz H2O maser observations of a number of low/intermediate mass evolved stars. We observed 3 Miras (Ap Lyn, IK Tau and IRC+60370), 1 semi-regular variable (RT Vir) and 1 pPN (OH231.8+4.2). Circular polarization is detected in the H2O maser region of OH231.8+4.2 and we infer a magnetic field of |B||| = ~45 mG. This implies an extrapolated magnetic field of ~2.5 G on the surface of the central star. The preliminary results on RT Vir and IRC+60370 also indicate the first detection of weak H2O maser linear polarization.
Silicon monoxide maser emission has been detected in the circumstellar envelopes of many evolved stars. It is a good tracer of the wind dynamics within a few stellar radii of the central star. We investigated the polarization morphology in the circumstellar envelope of an AGB star, R Cas, by using the VLBA to map the linear and circular polarization of the v=1, J=1-0 SiO maser transition during 23 epochs over two stellar cycles. The average fractional circular polarization is a few percent. The average fractional linear polarization per epoch is 11–58%, but some isolated features exceed 100%, probably because the total intensity emission is smoother and more resolved-out. The maser electric polarization vector angle has a preferrential tendency to be either parallel or perpendicular to the radial direction to the star.
Amacrine cells constitute a diverse class of interneurons that contribute to visual signal processing in the inner retina, but surprisingly, little is known about the physiology of most amacrine cell subtypes. Here, we have taken advantage of the sparse expression of vesicular glutamate transporter 3 (VGLUT3) in the mammalian retina to target the expression of yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) to a unique population of amacrine cells using a new transgenic mouse line. Electrophysiological recordings made from YFP-positive (VGLUT3+) amacrine cells provide the first functional data regarding the active membrane properties and synaptic connections of this recently identified cell type. We found that VGLUT3+ amacrine cells receive direct synaptic input from bipolar cells via both N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and non-NMDARs. Voltage-gated sodium channels amplified these excitatory inputs but repetitive spiking was never observed. VGLUT3+ amacrine cells responded transiently to both light increments (ON response) and decrements (OFF response); ON responses consisted exclusively of inhibitory inputs, while OFF responses comprised both excitatory and inhibitory components, although the inhibitory conductance was larger in amplitude and longer in time course. The physiological properties and anatomical features of the VGLUT3+ amacrine cells suggest that this bistratified interneuron may play a role in disinhibitory signaling and/or crossover inhibition between parallel pathways in the retina.
While information for the medical aspects of disaster surge is increasingly available, there is little guidance for health care facilities on how to manage the psychological aspects of large-scale disasters that might involve a surge of psychological casualties. In addition, no models are available to guide the development of training curricula to address these needs. This article describes 2 conceptual frameworks to guide hospitals and clinics in managing such consequences. One framework was developed to understand the antecedents of psychological effects or “psychological triggers” (restricted movement, limited resources, limited information, trauma exposure, and perceived personal or family risk) that cause the emotional, behavioral, and cognitive reactions following large-scale disasters. Another framework, adapted from the Donabedian quality of care model, was developed to guide appropriate disaster response by health care facilities in addressing the consequences of reactions to psychological triggers. This framework specifies structural components (internal organizational structure and chain of command, resources and infrastructure, and knowledge and skills) that should be in place before an event to minimize consequences. The framework also specifies process components (coordination with external organizations, risk assessment and monitoring, psychological support, and communication and information sharing) to support evidence-informed interventions.
(Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2011;5:73-80)
The romantic relationships of emerging adulthood (EA) pose a range of new psychological and emotional challenges that are unique to this stage of life. As youths make the transition from the casual romantic ties of adolescence to more serious and substantive relationships, the “stakes” of day-to-day relational maintenance become progressively higher. Furthermore, the greater depth and complexity of emerging adults' romantic ties place new demands on skills related to conflict resolution, negotiation, responsiveness, accommodation, sacrifice, and compromise. During this stage of life, romance is no longer “just fun” – the work of building and sustaining a long-term pair bond has begun.
Effective self-regulation, more generally, and affect regulation, in particular, are critical to this transition. Self-regulation is broadly defined as the process through which people control and correct their own goal-directed behavior (Aspinwall, 2001; Baumeister, Schmeichel, Vohs, Kruglanski, & Higgins, 2007). Affect regulation refers to the internal and transactional processes through which individuals modulate the experience or expression of positive and negative affect (Gross, 1999; Larsen, 2000). Patterns of affect regulation shape the ways in which individuals perceive, appraise, and react to emotionally relevant relationship experiences (reviewed in Diamond & Hicks, 2004). They are also fundamentally integrated with broader self-regulatory processes, including executive functioning, response inhibition, and the regulation of attention (Koole, 2009; Posner & Rothbart, 2007); hence individual differences in emerging adults' affect-regulatory capacities influence the initial direction and long-term course of their romantic relationship trajectories.
The methanol multi-beam (MMB) survey has produced the largest and most complete catalogue of Galactic 6.7-GHz methanol masers to date. 6.7-GHz methanol masers are exclusively associated with high-mass star formation, and as such provide invaluable insight into the Galactic distribution and properties of high-mass star formation regions. I present the statistical properties of the MMB catalogue and, through the calculation of kinematic distances, investigate the resolution of distance ambiguities and explore the Galactic distribution.
Molecular photoswitches like spiropyrans derivatives offer exciting possibilities for the development of analytical platforms incorporating photo-responsive materials for functions such as light-activated guest uptake and release and optical reporting on status (passive form, free active form, guest bound to active form). In particular, these switchable materials hold tremendous promise for microflow-systems, in view of the fact that their behaviour can be controlled and interrogated remotely using light from LEDs, without the need for direct physical contact. We demonstrate the immobilisation of these materials on microbeads which can be incorporated into a microflow system to facilitate photoswitchable guest uptake and release. We also introduce novel hybrid materials based on spiropyrans derivatives grafted onto a polymer backbone which, in the presence of an ionic liquid, produces a gel-like material capable of significant photoactuation behaviour. We demonstrate how this material can be incorporated into microfluidic platforms to produce valve-like structures capable of controlling liquid movement using light.
The results of the first complete survey for 6668-MHz CH3OH and 6035-MHz excited-state OH masers in the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds are presented. A new 6668-MHz CH3OH maser in the Large Magellanic Cloud has been detected towards the star-forming region N 160a, together with a new 6035-MHz excited-state OH maser detected towards N 157a. We also re-observed the previously known 6668-MHz CH3OH masers and the single known 6035-MHz OH maser. Neither maser transition was detected above ~0.13 Jy in the Small Magellanic Cloud. All observations were initially made using the CH3OH Multibeam (MMB) survey receiver on the 64-m Parkes radio telescope as part of the overall MMB project. Accurate positions were measured with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). In a comparison of the star formation maser populations in the Magellanic Clouds and our Galaxy, the LMC maser populations are demonstrated to be smaller than their Milky Way counterparts. CH3OH masers are under-abundant by a factor of ~50, whilst OH and H2O masers are a factor of ~10 less abundant than our Galaxy.
The theory of turbulent resistivity in ‘wavy’ magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in two dimensions is presented. The goal is to explore the theory of quenching of turbulent resistivity in a regime for which the mean field theory can be rigorously constructed at large magnetic Reynolds number Rm. This is achieved by extending the simple two-dimensional problem to include body forces, such as buoyancy or the Coriolis force, which convert large-scale eddies into weakly interacting dispersive waves. The turbulence-driven spatial flux of magnetic potential is calculated to fourth order in wave slope – the same order to which one usually works in wave kinetics. However, spatial transport, rather than spectral transfer, is the object here. Remarkably, adding an additional restoring force to the already tightly constrained system of high Rm magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in two dimensions can actually increase the turbulent resistivity, by admitting a spatial flux of magnetic potential which is not quenched at large Rm, although it is restricted by the conditions of applicability of weak turbulence theory. The absence of Rm-dependent quenching in this wave-interaction-driven flux is a consequence of the presence of irreversibility due to resonant nonlinear three-wave interactions, which are independent of collisional resistivity. The broader implications of this result for the theory of mean field electrodynamics are discussed.
Rapidly-evolving red supergiants (RSG) lose half or more of their mass before ending their lives as supernovae. Masers allow us to study the mass loss from 4 nearby RSG in AU-scale detail using MERLIN and EVN/global VLBI. The water maser clouds are over-dense and over-magnetised with respect to the surrounding wind. In most cases, the brighter an individual maser component is the smaller its apparent (beamed) FWHM appears, as predicted for approximately spherical clouds. Individual water maser features have a typical half-life of 5-10 yr, but comparison with single dish monitoring suggests that the water vapour clouds themselves survive many decades (the water maser shell crossing time), within which the local masers wink on and off. OH mainline masers are found in the tenuous surrounding gas, overlapping the water maser shell, surrounded by OH 1612-MHz masers at a greater distance from the star.