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Nanooptics which describes the interaction of light with matter at the nanoscale, is a topic of great fundamental interest to physicists and engineers and allows the direct observation of quantum mechanical phenomena in action. This self-contained and extensively referenced text describes the underlying theory behind nanodevices operating in the quantum regime for use both in advanced courses and as a reference for researchers in physics, chemistry, electrical engineering, and materials science. Presenting an extensive theoretical toolset for design and analysis of nanodevices, the authors demonstrate the art of developing approximate quantum models of real nanodevices. The rudimentary mathematical knowledge required to master the material is carefully introduced, with detailed derivations and frequent worked examples allowing readers to gain a thorough understanding of the material. More advanced applications are gradually introduced alongside analytical approximations and simplifying assumptions often used to make such problems tractable while representative of the observed features.
Gravitational waves from coalescing neutron stars encode information about nuclear matter at extreme densities, inaccessible by laboratory experiments. The late inspiral is influenced by the presence of tides, which depend on the neutron star equation of state. Neutron star mergers are expected to often produce rapidly rotating remnant neutron stars that emit gravitational waves. These will provide clues to the extremely hot post-merger environment. This signature of nuclear matter in gravitational waves contains most information in the 2–4 kHz frequency band, which is outside of the most sensitive band of current detectors. We present the design concept and science case for a Neutron Star Extreme Matter Observatory (NEMO): a gravitational-wave interferometer optimised to study nuclear physics with merging neutron stars. The concept uses high-circulating laser power, quantum squeezing, and a detector topology specifically designed to achieve the high-frequency sensitivity necessary to probe nuclear matter using gravitational waves. Above 1 kHz, the proposed strain sensitivity is comparable to full third-generation detectors at a fraction of the cost. Such sensitivity changes expected event rates for detection of post-merger remnants from approximately one per few decades with two A+ detectors to a few per year and potentially allow for the first gravitational-wave observations of supernovae, isolated neutron stars, and other exotica.
The flow over a superhydrophobic and a smooth circular cylinder is investigated using particle image velocimetry-based experiments. The objective is to understand the effect of surface modification on the ensuing flow. The experiments are conducted over a wide range of Reynolds numbers,
, thereby uncovering the effect of superhydrophobicity in various flow regimes of a cylinder wake. Superhydrophobicity is found to substantially affect the flow. An increased recirculation length is observed for the superhydrophobic cylinder in the steady regime. The onset of vortex shedding is delayed for the superhydrophobic cylinder. The superhydrophobic cylinder helps in an early rolling-up of vortices; therefore, the recirculation length reduces in unsteady regimes. The velocity deficit experienced by the superhydrophobic cylinder wake is comparatively less and the effect is more profound in the
range 300–860. A maximum drag reduction of 15 % is observed at
. The Reynolds shear stress and turbulent kinetic energy values are higher for the superhydrophobic cylinder in the unsteady regime. Also, the peaks of the turbulent wake parameters lie closer to the superhydrophobic cylinder compared to the smooth cylinder. The effect of superhydrophobicity on coherent structures is examined using proper orthogonal decomposition, and a considerable difference in the wake structure is noticed at
. A larger number of coherent structures and change in vortex shedding pattern to
are observed in the near wake of the superhydrophobic cylinder. The results of this study show that surface modification can reduce the drag coefficient and have a profound effect on the near wake.
Most studies underline the contribution of heritable factors for psychiatric disorders. However, heritability estimates depend on the population under study, diagnostic instruments, and study designs that each has its inherent assumptions, strengths, and biases. We aim to test the homogeneity in heritability estimates between two powerful, and state of the art study designs for eight psychiatric disorders.
We assessed heritability based on data of Swedish siblings (N = 4 408 646 full and maternal half-siblings), and based on summary data of eight samples with measured genotypes (N = 125 533 cases and 208 215 controls). All data were based on standard diagnostic criteria. Eight psychiatric disorders were studied: (1) alcohol dependence (AD), (2) anorexia nervosa, (3) attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), (4) autism spectrum disorder, (5) bipolar disorder, (6) major depressive disorder, (7) obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and (8) schizophrenia.
Heritability estimates from sibling data varied from 0.30 for Major Depression to 0.80 for ADHD. The estimates based on the measured genotypes were lower, ranging from 0.10 for AD to 0.28 for OCD, but were significant, and correlated positively (0.19) with national sibling-based estimates. When removing OCD from the data the correlation increased to 0.50.
Given the unique character of each study design, the convergent findings for these eight psychiatric conditions suggest that heritability estimates are robust across different methods. The findings also highlight large differences in genetic and environmental influences between psychiatric disorders, providing future directions for etiological psychiatric research.
Downward trends in a number of adolescent risk behaviors including violence, crime, and drug use have been observed in the USA in recent years. It is unknown whether these are separate trends or whether they might relate to a general reduction in propensity to engage in such behaviors. Our objectives were to quantify trends in substance use disorders (SUDs) and delinquent behaviors over the 2003–2014 period and to determine whether they might reflect a single trend in an Externalizing-like trait.
We analyzed data from 12 to 17 year old participants from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, a representative survey of the household dwelling population of the USA, across the 2003–2014 period (N = 210 599). Outcomes included past-year prevalence of six categories of substance use disorder and six categories of delinquent behavior.
Trend analysis suggested a net decline of 49% in mean number of SUDs and a 34% decline in delinquent behaviors over the 12-year period. Item Response Theory models were consistent with the interpretation that declines in each set of outcomes could be attributed to changes in mean levels of a latent, Externalizing-like trait.
Our findings suggest that declines in SUDs and some delinquent behaviors reflect a single trend related to an Externalizing-like trait. Identifying the factors contributing to this trend may facilitate continued improvement across a spectrum of adolescent risk behaviors.
A theoretical model is developed for studying the generation of third-harmonic radiation by the interaction of obliquely incident, two-color p-polarized laser beams with spatially varying plasma density. The ratio of the fundamental frequencies of the two laser beams are considered to be an arbitrary integer. The amplitude of harmonic radiation obtained by oblique incidence of two-color laser fields propagating in homogeneous plasma is enhanced in comparison with that obtained by normal incidence of two-color laser beams. The periodicity of the plasma density allows the harmonic radiation to be phase-matched, leading to further increase in the amplitude of phase-matched harmonic radiation by an order of magnitude. The amplitude of the generated harmonic radiation increases with the increase in angle of incidence.