Abstract Hepatic venous blood has been thought to play some role as a vasoactive agent in the development of pulmonary arteriovenous fistulas in patients with congenital heart disease. During the last 15 years, we have observed pulmonary arteriovenous fistulas in 3, and systemic arteriovenous fistulas in 2, patients from our 16 cases of left isomerism. During the same period, neither pulmonary nor systemic arteriovenous fistulas were detected among 50 patients with right isomerism. Pulmonary arteriovenous fistulas had developed in the absence of surgery in 1 of the patients. Both pulmonary and systemic fistulas were detected in an another patient, in whom the hepatic venous blood bypassed the pulmonary circulation. The level of somatostatin, which is known to reduce splanchnic blood flow, was high in the systemic venous blood of this patient. Although the mechanism of development of the fistulas has yet to be clarified, we should be aware that not only pulmonary, but also systemic arteriovenous fistulas can be found in patients with left isomerism, even prior to any surgical intervention.