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We determined how pasture and grazing management practices affected the number of days hay was fed to cattle by season. Data were collected from a survey of Tennessee cattle producers. Days of cattle on hay varied across seasons because of variations in forage production and weather. The number of days hay was fed to cattle varied with pasture-animal management practices such as rotating pastures, forage mixtures, and weed management strategies. Having mixtures of cool- and warm-season grasses reduced the number of days on hay in the winter, spring, and summer months indicating benefits from diversified forages.
Attempts to understand the fundamental forces shaping conflict between attacking and defending groups can be hampered by a narrow focus on humans and reductionist, oversimplified modelling. Further progress depends on recognising the striking parallels in between-group conflict across the animal kingdom, harnessing the power of experimental tests in nonhuman species and modelling the eco-evolutionary feedbacks that drive attack and defence.
This is a copy of the slides presented at the meeting but not formally written up for the volume.
As in vivo cellular imaging becomes the necessary norm for understanding cancer and other diseases, new non-toxic nanoprobes are going to be required to replace the high quality cadmium based nanoprobes in use today. We are developing less toxic probes based on two types of luminescent ceramic nanoparticles: naturally occurring fluorescent (NOF) mimics and Ln-based ceramic oxide materials. The NOF minerals of interest and that have demonstrated initial luminosity of sufficient brightness for use in cellular studies that include sphalerite, scheelite, manganoan and perovskite nanoparticles. For Ln-based materials we have shown that Ln-doped zincite will also luminesce enough to allow for quantification in cellular activity. Once formed, these probes are functionalized such that they can be delivered to desired cellular targets. Probe derivatization has focused on surface capping with functionalized poly(ethyleneglycol) molecules/lipids to yield water soluble NCs and polyarginine-based transporters for transmembrane delivery. The probes are being evaluated for their luminescent properties, as well as their non-toxicity and ability to report on cell-signaling events with various cell lines using multi-spectral, confocal microscopy, and other techniques. Preliminary interdisciplinary studies have validated the basic approaches for the synthesis of NOF nanoprobes and the bio-delivery and imaging of nanoparticles. Work to optimize the design, delivery, and imaging of these new nanoprobes is expected to achieve the NIH directed goal of increasing in the sensitivity and specificity of molecular probes for imaging. Details of the synthesis, functionalization and biological imaging using these probes will be presented. This work partially supported by the United States Department of Energy under contract number DE-AC04-94AL85000. Sandia is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy and by the National Institutes of health through the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research, Grant #1 R21 EB005365-01. Information on this RFA (Innovation in Molecular Imaging Probes) can be found at http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/rfa-files/RFA-RM-04-021.html.
To explore the perceptions of soldiers participating in a US Army Office of The Surgeon General’s worksite health promotion programme (WHPP) on the local food environment within their campus-style workplace.
Focus groups were conducted to evaluate the perceived effectiveness of the WHPP implementation. Further exploration of focus group data through thematic analysis focused on perceived contributions of the military campus-style food environment to soldiers’ nutrition behaviours.
Three US Army installations located in the continental USA.
Active duty soldiers (n 366) participating in one of the fifty-eight focus groups.
Soldiers shared a common belief of self-discipline and personal responsibility as the foothold to nutrition behaviour change. Soldiers described aspects of the military campus-style food environment as factors impeding achievement of optimal nutrition. Collectively, soldiers perceived the proximity and density of fast-food restaurants, lack of healthy alternatives on the installation and the cost of healthy food as inhibitors to choosing healthy foods. Overwhelmingly, soldiers also perceived time constraints as a factor contributing to unhealthy food choices.
Although nutrition behaviour is individually driven, soldiers perceived the military campus-style food environment inhibits healthy decision making. Nutrition programming in military WHPP must integrate food environment changes to improve soldiers’ nutrition behaviour outcomes. Applicable to the military, food choice behaviour studies suggest environmental changes must be appealing to young adults. Considerations for environmental changes should include an increased portion size for healthy options, broadened use of soldiers’ daily food allowances on local produce and increased availability of grab-and-go options.
A national need is to prepare for and respond to accidental or intentional disasters categorized as chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, or explosive (CBRNE). These incidents require specific subject-matter expertise, yet have commonalities. We identify 7 core elements comprising CBRNE science that require integration for effective preparedness planning and public health and medical response and recovery. These core elements are (1) basic and clinical sciences, (2) modeling and systems management, (3) planning, (4) response and incident management, (5) recovery and resilience, (6) lessons learned, and (7) continuous improvement. A key feature is the ability of relevant subject matter experts to integrate information into response operations. We propose the CBRNE medical operations science support expert as a professional who (1) understands that CBRNE incidents require an integrated systems approach, (2) understands the key functions and contributions of CBRNE science practitioners, (3) helps direct strategic and tactical CBRNE planning and responses through first-hand experience, and (4) provides advice to senior decision-makers managing response activities. Recognition of both CBRNE science as a distinct competency and the establishment of the CBRNE medical operations science support expert informs the public of the enormous progress made, broadcasts opportunities for new talent, and enhances the sophistication and analytic expertise of senior managers planning for and responding to CBRNE incidents.
To assess the effect of rural-to-urban migration on nutrition transition and overweight/obesity risk among women in Kenya.
Secondary analysis of data from nationally representative cross-sectional samples. Outcome variables were women’s BMI and nutrition transition. Nutrition transition was based on fifteen different household food groups and was adjusted for socio-economic and demographic characteristics. Stepwise backward multiple ordinal regression analysis was applied.
Kenya Demographic and Health Survey 2014.
Rural non-migrant, rural-to-urban migrant and urban non-migrant women aged 15–49 years (n 6171).
Crude data analysis showed rural-to-urban migration to be associated with overweight/obesity risk and nutrition transition. After adjustment for household wealth, no significant differences between rural non-migrants and rural-to-urban migrants for overweight/obesity risk and household consumption of several food groups characteristic of nutrition transition (animal-source, fats and sweets) were observed. Regardless of wealth, migrants were less likely to consume main staples and legumes, and more likely to consume fruits and vegetables. Identified predictive factors of overweight/obesity among migrant women were age, duration of residence in urban area, marital status and household wealth.
Our analysis showed that nutrition transition and overweight/obesity risk among rural-to-urban migrants is apparent with increasing wealth in urban areas. Several predictive factors were identified characterising migrant women being at risk for overweight/obesity. Future research is needed which investigates in depth the association between rural-to-urban migration and wealth to address inequalities in diet and overweight/obesity in Kenya.
England has recently started a new paediatric influenza vaccine programme using a live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV). There is uncertainty over how well the vaccine protects against more severe end-points. A test-negative case–control study was used to estimate vaccine effectiveness (VE) in vaccine-eligible children aged 2–16 years of age in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza hospitalisation in England in the 2015–2016 season using a national sentinel laboratory surveillance system. Logistic regression was used to estimate the VE with adjustment for sex, risk-group, age group, region, ethnicity, deprivation and month of sample collection. A total of 977 individuals were included in the study (348 cases and 629 controls). The overall adjusted VE for all study ages and vaccine types was 33.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.3–54.6) after adjusting for age group, sex, index of multiple deprivation, ethnicity, region, sample month and risk group. Risk group was shown to be an important confounder. The adjusted VE for all influenza types for the live-attenuated vaccine was 41.9% (95% CI 7.3–63.6) and 28.8% (95% CI −31.1 to 61.3) for the inactivated vaccine. The study provides evidence of the effectiveness of influenza vaccination in preventing hospitalisation due to laboratory-confirmed influenza in children in 2015–2016 and continues to support the rollout of the LAIV childhood programme.
Quantifying interconnected performances of the modules in a colonial organism (feeding, sexual reproduction, rejuvenation, dormancy) into an integral picture enables studying functional dynamics and resource allocation at different levels – from module to population. Testing this approach on the common boreal-Arctic bryozoan Cribrilina annulata in the White Sea, we describe its life history, comparing colonies on two algal substrates with contrasting size and lifespan. Colonies living on kelps were much larger and had a higher proportion of dormant zooids, whereas the percentage of reproducing, feeding and rejuvenating zooids was higher in colonies on red algae (with the colonies also exhibiting longer reproductive period). Colony lifespan was dependent both on substrate type and on time of colony establishment, lasting from 4–5 to up to 17 months on kelps and 14–18 months on red algae. During the reproductive season (May–September) the C. annulata population consisted of colonies of three cohorts on both substrata: overwintered and two summer generations that behaved differently. Whereas overwintered and summer colonies established in June–early August produced larvae, most of the colonies established after mid-summer were preparing for hibernation and postponed reproduction until next spring. Moreover, young reproducing colonies formed brooding hermaphrodite zooids of ordinary size, whereas overwintered colonies budded smaller-sized basal and frontal (dwarf) hermaphrodites. Finally, overall zooidal performance in co-existing colonies of the overwintered and young generations was different on kelps, but similar on red algae. Altogether our findings indicate that the life histories of colonial epibionts are much more complex and evolutionarily flexible than generally acknowledged.
We estimate the values of bull phenotypic traits, performance measurements, and expected progeny differences (EPDs) over time using bull sale data from an auction in Tennessee from 2006 to 2016. Moreover, we determine how a state partial-cost reimbursement program for bulls with certain EPDs affects bull sale price. Purebred seed stock producers in this region should focus on selling large, fast-growing, mature bulls that produce lighter calves for reduced calving stress. The state cost-share payment did not significantly increase bull prices in most years, meaning this payment was retained by cow-calf producers in most years.
The present study evaluates the use of multiple correspondence analysis (MCA), a type of exploratory factor analysis designed to reduce the dimensionality of large categorical data sets, in identifying behaviours associated with measures of overweight/obesity in Vanuatu, a rapidly modernizing Pacific Island country.
Starting with seventy-three true/false questions regarding a variety of behaviours, MCA identified twelve most significantly associated with modernization status and transformed the aggregate binary responses of participants to these twelve questions into a linear scale. Using this scale, individuals were separated into three modernization groups (tertiles) among which measures of body fat were compared and OR for overweight/obesity were computed.
Ni-Vanuatu adults (n 810) aged 20–85 years.
Among individuals in the tertile characterized by positive responses to most of or all the twelve modernization questions, weight and measures of body fat and the likelihood that measures of body fat were above the US 75th percentile were significantly greater compared with individuals in the tertiles characterized by mostly or partly negative responses.
The study indicates that MCA can be used to identify individuals or groups at risk for overweight/obesity, based on answers to simply-put questions. MCA therefore may be useful in areas where obtaining detailed information about modernization status is constrained by time, money or manpower.
The aim of this study was the construction and validation of a novel research instrument to quantify the degree of post-hurricane trauma and distress in an affected population. The Post-Hurricane Distress Scale (PHDS) has quantitative measures of both acute and prolonged distress, attributable to meteorological and hydrological disasters.
A careful evaluation of existing questionnaires, as well as extensive canvasing of the post-Maria population of Puerto Rico, availed the construction of the PHDS. The PHDS consists of 20 items, organized into 4 subscales. The PHDS was pre-validated (n=79), revised, and then distributed to a broad sampling of the post-Hurricane Maria Puerto Rican population (n=597). Validation, including factor analysis, analyses of concurrent validity, discriminant validity, and internal reliability, was performed.
After comparing various scales, factor loading profiles, concurrent validities, and models of fit, we show that the PHDS is best scored as a single 0–6 distress scale. When compared with the Traumatic Exposure Severity Scale, the PHDS shows superior concurrent validity, more accurately predicting scores for the Peritraumatic Distress Inventory, Impact of Event Scale – Revised, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7 Scale. The PHDS shows good internal reliability and discriminant validity.
The PHDS represents a novel, useful instrument for disaster first-responders and researchers. The prompt identification of high-risk populations is possible using this instrument. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:82-89)
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a hyperkinetic movement disorder associated with antipsychotic treatment. RE KINECT (NCT03062033), a real-world study of outpatients prescribed antipsychotics, was designed to identify the presence of possible TD and characterize the impact of involuntary movements on functioning and quality of life. Data from RE-KINECT were used to compare the impact of possible TD in patients with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder [SZD] versus mood/other psychiatric disorders [Mood].
Adults with ≥3months of lifetime exposure to antipsychotics and ≥1 psychiatric disorder were recruited. The presence of possible TD was based on clinicians’ observation of involuntary movements in 4 body regions (head, trunk, upper extremities, and lower extremities). Baseline outcomes included demographics, medication history, location/severity of abnormal movements, impact of abnormal movements on daily activities, the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), and the EuroQoL 5-Dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D-5L).
Of 204 patients with clinician-confirmed possible TD, 111 (54.4%) had a SZD diagnosis and 93 (45.6%) had a mood/other psychiatric diagnosis. Significant differences found between groups (Mood vs SZD) included: mean age (56.9 vs 52.7 years; P=0.0263); male sex (33.3% vs 62.2%; P<0.0001); African-American race (7.5% vs 26.1%; P=0.0005); mean lifetime exposure to antipsychotics (9.5 vs 19.5 years; P<0.0001); and percentage of patients currently taking ≥2 psychiatric medications (93.5% vs 79.3%; P=0.0093). Based on clinician observation, there were no significant differences between diagnosis groups in the number of body regions impacted by abnormal movements, maximum severity score across all 4 regions, or patient awareness of possible TD. Over 30% of patients in both groups reported that involuntary movements had “some” or “a lot” of impact on their ability to continue usual activities, be productive, and socialize. No significant differences between the diagnosis groups (Mood vs SZD) were found for mean SDS total score (12.8 vs 10.8), SDS domain scores (work/school [4.1 vs 4.2], social life [4.3 vs 3.7], family life [4.1 vs 3.5]), EQ-5D-5L utility score (0.68 vs 0.74), or EQ-5D-5L health state VAS (64.8 vs 68.5).
In this cohort of outpatients with possible TD, those with Mood disorders were more likely to be older, female, and white than patients with SZD. The ability to function and quality of life were equally impaired in both groups. Further studies on the impact of TD are needed.
Funding Acknowledgements: Neurocrine Biosciences, Inc.
Optimising short- and long-term outcomes for children and patients with CHD depends on continued scientific discovery and translation to clinical improvements in a coordinated effort by multiple stakeholders. Several challenges remain for clinicians, researchers, administrators, patients, and families seeking continuous scientific and clinical advancements in the field. We describe a new integrated research and improvement network – Cardiac Networks United – that seeks to build upon the experience and success achieved to-date to create a new infrastructure for research and quality improvement that will serve the needs of the paediatric and congenital heart community in the future. Existing gaps in data integration and barriers to improvement are described, along with the mission and vision, organisational structure, and early objectives of Cardiac Networks United. Finally, representatives of key stakeholder groups – heart centre executives, research leaders, learning health system experts, and parent advocates – offer their perspectives on the need for this new collaborative effort.
We leverage innovative spatial modeling techniques and data on the
precise geo-locations of more than 32,000 Constituency Development
Fund (CDF) projects in Kenya to test whether Members of Parliament
(MPs) reward their supporters. We find only weak evidence that MPs
channel projects disproportionately to areas inhabited by their
political allies, once we control for other factors that affect
where projects are placed, such as population density, poverty
rates, ethnic demographics, and distance to paved roads.
Notwithstanding this result, we find evidence for cross-constituency
variation in political targeting, driven in large part by the
spatial segregation of the MP’s supporters and opponents. Our
findings challenge the conventional wisdom about the centrality of
clientelistic transfers in Africa and underscore how local
conditions generate particular incentives and opportunities for the
strategic allocation of political goods. We also highlight the
benefits and challenges of analyzing allocations at the project
level rather than aggregated to the administrative unit.