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Hydrogen implanted into ceramic YBa2Cu3O7−x (YBCO) with a dose of 1 × 1017 H+ cm−2 started to effuse as molecular hydrogen from the YBCO to atmosphere at a temperature of 200 °C, effuse predominantly as water by reacting with oxygen at temperatures of 300–700 °C, and again effuse as molecular hydrogen at temperatures above 800 °C. The improvement of the superconducting properties of the proton implanted YBCO occurred at annealing temperatures for which implanted hydrogen effused predominantly as water by reacting with oxygen.
The reactants produced at the start of the reaction of YBC with water include Y2O3, Ba(OH)2, BaCu(OH)3, and Cu2O. The compound Ba(OH)2 changes to form BaCO3, BaC2O4, and Ya(COOH)2 by reacting with CO2 present in the water. Compounds such as BaCuO2, CuO, and Y2BaCuO5 were then produced by reactions among such reactants as Y2O3, Ba(OH)2, BaCu(OH)3, and Cu2O.
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